PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
未完成任务与自我损耗的关系
其他题名The Relationship Between Unfinished Goals and Ego- depletion
董华
学位类型硕士
导师高文斌
2016-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词未完成任务 自我损耗 生活方式 现实--理想自我差异
摘要人们一般会同时或连续追求多个相关或不相关的目标,但在特定时间内,人们一般只能执行某一目标任务。但那些被暂时“搁置”或放弃的未实现目标仍处于活跃状态,会占用个体的注意力、思维、工作记忆等执行资源。
有限自控力理论认为,个体的自我控制依赖于数量有限的心理资源,环境刺激会使个体执行自我控制,并消耗有限的自我控制资源,而资源的减少会导致后续自控能力的不足与自我控制的失败,这种现象被称为“自我损耗效应”。研究表明:如果目标任务很难达到或不能通过有效途径完成,那么个体可能会经历高水平的心理压力,心理压力往往会导致情绪问题,而情绪失调和满足自控需要会导致严重的自我损耗。
现代社会紧张的生活节奏,无处不在的各种即时诱惑,经常与人们的长期目标发生冲突。生活中各种事情无法在预先规定的时间内开始或完成,出现现实与理想之间的差异,形成诸多未完成任务。研究一用问卷法探索未完成任务与自我损耗之间是否存在相关关系,然而由于相关关系并不能说明二者之间谁因谁果,因此在研究二中使用实验法来验证未完成任务是否真的影响自我损耗以及如何影响的。
研究一对434名大学生进行理想与现实的生活方式和自我调节疲劳调查,考察生活方式各个维度的未完成任务是否与自我损耗相关。结果:生活方式中人际关系、学习习惯、体育锻炼、应对方式、睡眠习惯、饮食习惯的未完成任务与自我损耗呈正相关,卫生习惯和娱乐活动的未完成任务与自我损耗的相关关系没有达到统计学上的显著水平。研究二招募118名被试,在实验条件下让个体知道未完成任务,考察未完成任务的难易程度以及任务的不同发放方法是否对自我损耗产生影响。结果显示表明:难易程度和发放方法的主效应均不显著,但这二者的交互作用显著:当把难的未完成任务一次性发放时,成绩较高,自我损耗严重;当把容易的未完成任务一次性发放时,成绩较低,自我损耗减轻。
结论:1)大学生生活方式的人际关系、学习习惯、体育锻炼、应对方式、睡眠习惯、饮食习惯的现实--理想自我差异所形成的未完成任务与自我损耗正相关;2)未完成任务的难易程度和不同发放方法对自我损耗无影响,但二者的不同结合方式对自我损耗存在不同的影响:一次性发放难程度未完成任务会加重自我损耗 ,而一次性发放易程度未完成任务会减轻自我损耗。
其他摘要A person may be committed to multiple related or unrelated goals at once, the conscious executive can strive to satisfy them only one at a time. Each unfulfilled goal remains active, intruding into one’s thoughts, attention and working memory, seeking to recapture the executive so as to move toward fulfillment.
Limited self-control theory suggests that the self-control depends on limited resources. Environmental stimulation can make the implementation of self-control, and consume the limited self-control’s resources. The reduction in resources will lead to low self-control or self-control failure. This is called "ego-depletion effect". A study indicated that if a self-relevant goal proves unattainable and a person is not able to engage in other meaningful activities, then the person may experience levels of psychological distress. Psychological distress often leads to emotional disorders. Coping with emotional dissonance and self-control demands will lead to ego depletion.
In modern society, ubiquitous various instant temptations often conflict with people’s long-term goals. All sorts of things in life cannot be started or completed within a predetermined time. The actual-ideal discrepancy formed unfulfilled goals. The first study use questionnaire method to explore the relationship between unfinished goals and ego-depletion. However, the correlation couldn’t indicate which is the reason or result. The second study used experimental method to verify the unfilled mission whether have effects on ego depletion and how to effect.
Study 1: The self-edited lifestyle actual-ideal self-discrepancy scale and the SRF-S (Self-Regulator fatigue scale) were administered to 434 university undergraduate students. To investigate the unfilled goals in various demotions of lifestyle whether related to ego-depletion. Result indicated that the unattainable goals of lifestyle in interpersonal relationship, study habits, physical exercise, coping style, sleep and diet were positively correlated with ego-depletion. There was no relationship between ego-depletion and unattainable goals in health habits and recreational activities.
Study 2: 118 participates which understand the unfinished goals were recruited in the laboratory. Aimed to find difficulty and different delivery methods of the unfilled mission whether have effects on ego depletion. The results showed that the between-subject effects weren’t significant but the interaction effect was significant on ego depletion.
Conclusion: 1) The unfulfilled goals of university students in interpersonal relationship, study habits, physical exercise, coping style, sleep and diet were positively correlated with ego-depletion. 2) The difficulty and different delivery methods of the unfinished goals have no effects on ego depletion. But the two different combine ways had significant effects on ego depletion. The full release of the difficult unfilled task will aggravate the ego-depletion, while full release of the easy unfinished task will relieve ego-depletion.
学科领域健康心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19854
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
董华. 未完成任务与自我损耗的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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