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早晚型驾驶员的认知和行为差异
其他题名Cognitive and Behavioral Differences between Morning-Type and Evening-Type Drivers in China
熊悦欣
学位类型硕士
导师葛燕 ; 瞿炜娜 ; 赵国朕 ; 张侃
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词早晚型 危险驾驶 驾驶相关认知能力 模拟器驾驶 同步效应
摘要出于运输业对安全的强烈需要,对相关从业人员的筛选和工作安排一直是安全驾驶的重头戏。常见的驾驶员筛选标准有人格等,而像早晚型这种特质性差异还并未被考虑入内。同时,在实际工作中,早晚班的执勤往往是其中必要的工作,而影响早晚值班工作绩效及安全驾驶的重要因素之一便是早晚型。故研究早晚型在驾驶行为上的差异很必要,并且能为相关从业人员进行更好的筛选和更合理的工作安排提供科学依据。
研究一探讨了早晚型和危险驾驶行为的关系,利用问卷测量了驾驶员的早晚型、危险驾驶行为和人格特质等,研究结果显示越是偏晚间型则危险驾驶行为越多,并且在控制人格的前提下早晚型对危险驾驶行为同样具有显著预测作用,并且宜人性在早晚型对危险驾驶行为的作用中起调节作用。
研究二则进一步探讨了早晚型驾驶行为差异的可能原因,即早晚型的驾驶相关的认知能力是否存在有差异或同步效应,实验1至4分别采用了基本认知实验范式在早上和下午两个时间段对早晚型人的注意广度、速度估计、视觉搜索和视空间工作记忆进行了测量,结果表明晚间型的视觉搜索正确率、反应时以及视空间工作记忆的正确率都好于早间型。
研究三利用驾驶模拟器探讨了早晚型在实际驾驶行为是否存在差异或同步效应,其中包括行人过马路、跟车同时检测行人任务(实验5、6)。结果表明早晚型在实验前疲劳具有同步效应,晚间型上午更疲劳,早间型下午更疲劳,并且早晚型主效应显著,晚间型疲劳高于早间型。同时,在跟车并检测行人任务中,晚间型在下午实验的平均速度和超速所占百分比都比早上高,而早间型在早晚时间上相对稳定。
本研究不仅在一定程度上探明了早晚型和驾驶行为的关系,也进一步揭晓了驾驶差异的更深原因。本研究能为职业驾驶员选拔及工作安排提供科学依据。
其他摘要As for the intense need of safety in the carrying trade, the screening of related drivers and work arrangement are always of great importance in the safe driving field. The personality has been mostly considered for the screening of professional drivers, while another kind of individual difference, chronotype, has seldom been considered.  However, the morning shift oreveningshiftis a must for most professional drivers,and chronotype plays an important role in working shift. Thus, the research on the driving differencesbetween chronotypesis essential andcould set the scientific base forthe screening and work arrangements for drivers. 
Study one investigatedthe relationship between chronotype and dangerous driving behavior, using questionnaires to assess the chronotype, dangerous driving behavior and personality of drivers. The results showedthat the more eveningness the drivers were, the more dangerous driving behaviors they have, and chronotype could predict the dangerous driving behavior under the condition of controlling personality.
Study two explored whether different chronotypes differ in the driving-related cognitive abilities and the simulated driving behaviorsduring different time of day. Exp.1 to 4 utilized the classic paradigms to measure the attention span, speed estimation, visual research and visual-spatial working memory of the two types of persons in both morning and afternoon sessions. The cognitive results showedthat there was a main effect of chronotype on the accuracy and reactiontime of visual search, and the accuracy of spatial working memory. More specifically, the evening type persons demonstrated better visual search and spatial working memory ability than morning type persons.
Study three furtherexplored the driving differences or synchrony effect between morning type and evening type in the simulated driving tasks (exp.5& 6),includinga pedestrian crossing taskanda detection of standing person while following a leading car task. The results revealed that there was a synchrony effect for the fatiguein both experiments. Moreover, evening type conducted more speeding and higher speed in the afternoon session than in the morning sessionin exp. 6.
Not only have our studies revealed the relationship between chronotype and driving behaviors, but also we have found the deeper reasons. Our results could give some guidance for the selection andthearrangements of working schedules of professional drivers.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19857
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
熊悦欣. 早晚型驾驶员的认知和行为差异[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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