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注意偏向对震后儿童心理反应的影响 ——思维反刍的多重中介作用
Alternative TitleThe effect of attentional bias on Posttraumatic outcomes amongChildren after the earthquake ——the multiple mediation of rumination
吕遥迪
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张雨青
2016-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword注意偏向 思维反刍 创伤后应激障碍 创伤后成长 多重中介
Abstract目的:创伤经历既会给个体带来消极影响,也能成为个体创伤后成长的契机。诸多研究表明,创伤相关的思维反刍是PTSD和PTG发生的重要认知因素。也有研究证明个体消极的认知加工风格会使个体更倾向于对创伤事件做出消极的解释,从而导致PTSD;而个体积极的认知加工风格,会使个体能够更有效地主动参与创伤事件相关的思维反刍(如积极的认知评价,意义的寻求),进而获得PTG。因此本研究选取云南鲁甸地震灾区的初中生为研究对象,建立了注意偏向、思维反刍和创伤后心理反应三者的关系模型,旨在通过实验和数据来对关系模型进行验证。
方法:研究一旨在修订中文版积极/消极注意偏向量表(The attention to Positive and Negative Information Scale, APNI)。用中文版APNI量表、积极/消极情绪量表(PANAS)、儿童事件冲击量表(CRIES)、创伤后成长量表——儿童修订版(PTGI-C)对云南鲁甸地震灾区初中生进行测试,检验量表的信、效度指标;研究二在研究一修订的量表的基础上,采用问卷调查法,通过结构方程模型和bootstrap多重中介分析方法,探讨自我报告的注意偏向和思维反刍在儿童创伤后心理反应的作用。研究三在研究二的基础上,采用点探测实验任务,探讨行为实验测量的注意偏向与创伤后心理反应的关系,进一步验证研究一量表的校标效度。
结果:研究一的探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析的结论都验证了积极/消极注意偏向量表的两因素结构;积极的注意偏向与积极情绪和PTG得分均呈正相关,消极的注意偏向与消极情绪和PTSD症状得分均呈正相关。研究二的结果检验了思维反刍的多重中介效应:消极的注意偏向通过侵入性反刍显著预测PTSD症状;积极的注意偏向也可以通过侵入性反刍显著负向预测PTSD症状;积极的注意偏向既可以通过主动性反刍显著预测PTG水平,也可以通过负向影响侵入性反刍来进一步影响主动性反刍,从而负向预测PTG水平;而消极的注意偏向可以通过影响侵入性反刍来进一步影响主动性反刍,从而正向预测PTG水平;侵入性反刍也可以通过主动性反刍的中介作用显著正向预测PTG水平。研究三的结果发现对负性情绪图片的注意偏向只与PTSD症状中的闯入症状正相关。
结论:1)修订后的中文版积极/消极注意偏向量表具有良好的信效度,适合在中国背景下使用。2)不同效价的注意偏向(积极vs.消极)可以通过不同类型的思维反刍(侵入性vs.主动性)的多重中介作用,从而产生不同的创伤后心理反应(PTSD vs. PTG)。3)侵入性反刍可以通过主动性反刍的完全中介作用正向影响PTG水平。
Other AbstractThere are two different psychological outcomes aroused after experiencing traumatic events: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)and Posttraumatic growth (PTG).Some literature and empirical evidence have indicated that trauma-related rumination is an important underlying mechanism in the development and maintenance of PTSD and PTG. Empirical evidence showed that negative cognitive processing style and negative appraisal of trauma are associated with the development of PTSD. On the other hand, positive cognitive processing style and deliberate rumination about the trauma (e.g. positive reappraisal, meaning-making) are positively related to PTG. The present research, building a multiple mediation model among Chinese Children after the earthquake, was conducted to examine the relationships of different valence (negative, positive) of attentional biases and trauma-related rumination with PTSD symptoms and PTG.
Method
Study1 aims to revise of attention to Positive and Negative Information Scale (APNI) in Chinesechildren after the earthquake. Take the Chinese version of the Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES), the Revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children (PTG-C), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) to make a survey among the middle-school students from quake-affected area; Study2 explored an integrated model of predictors of PTSD and PTG by Structural equation model and bias corrected bootstrap test, in which a sample of children after an earthquake completed a set of questionnaires measuring negative and positive attentional bias, trauma-related rumination, PTSD symptoms, and PTG; Study3 examined the relationships based on study2 by using a dot-probe task.
Results
Study1 shown that the results of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis both support the two-factor structure model.The score of positive attentional bias showed a significant positive correlation with that of the positive affectand PTG;The score of negative attentional bias showed a significant positive correlation with that of the negative affectand PTSD.
Study2 examined the multiple mediation of rumination. The results shown that both the positive relationship between self-reported negative attentional bias and PTSD symptoms and the negative relationship between self-reported positive attentional bias and PTSD symptom was partially mediated by intrusive rumination, whereas the relationship between self-reported positive attentional bias and PTG was partially mediated by deliberate rumination. Additionally, there were multiple mediating effects
by which self-reported positive attentional bias affected PTG negatively and negative attentional bias affected PTG positively by deliberate rumination following intrusive rumination. Furthermore, intrusive rumination did not affect PTG indirectly but completely mediated the relation of deliberate rumination.
Study3 shown that negative attentional bias by experimental task was only related to posttraumatic intrusive symptom.
Conclusions
1) The Chinese Revision of Attention to Positive and Negative Information Scale has good reliability and validity, hence they are suitable for measurement in Chinese.
2) The different valence (negative, positive) of attentional biases have different effect on PTSD symptoms and PTG by multiple mediation of the different types (intrusive, deliberate) of trauma-related rumination.
3) Intrusive rumination affected PTG by completely mediation of deliberate rumination.
Subject Area应用心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19863
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
吕遥迪. 注意偏向对震后儿童心理反应的影响 ——思维反刍的多重中介作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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