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亲社会动机对个体创造力的影响机制
其他题名The Mechanisms of Prosocial Motivation to Individual Creativity
李阳
学位类型硕士
导师白新文
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
摘要创造力对于人类的发展进步具有重大意义,上到国家层面的建设创新型国家的战略规划,下到日常生活中的问题解决和人际关系的处理,创造力都能在其中发挥非常重要的作用。因此,学者们对它的关注也愈加增强,特别是探究其影响因素和产生机制方面。
通过回顾和总结前人研究,我们发现以往有关创造力的研究,主要是从创造者的视角出发,去探讨什么样的人格特质能够影响个体创造力;或者是哪些因素可以通过提高个体的内部动机,进而促进创造力。然而,在实际生活中,创造力不仅与创造者本身有关,也与创造的受助对象有关,因为创造力常被用来帮助他人解决问题。这时,我们就需要跳出创造者的视角,考虑受助对象所处的情境,也就是探讨亲社会动机与创造力之间的关系。因为亲社会动机是指“为使他人受益而付出努力的意愿”,它可以很好地反映出对创造产出的受助对象及其所处情境的重视。
鉴于此,本研究先后通过两个实验来探究亲社会动机对个体创造力的影响机制。研究一通过 2×2 的组间设计,分别操纵内部动机和亲社会动机,让80名大学生被试完成就校园中卖旧书的宣传方法来产生创意的任务。结果发现,亲社会动机能够促进个体创造力。研究二通过2×2 的组间设计,分别操纵亲社会动机和调节定向的情境,让88名大学生被试完成就如何提升大学生创业项目盈利的创意产生的任务。结果再次验证了亲社会动机能够促进个体创造力。同时,个体的换位思考和共情水平,能够中介亲社会动机对创造力的影响。此外,亲社会动机与调节定向的情境线索对个体创造力的不同成分的影响存在交互作用。高亲社会动机的个体,会在促进定向的情境中产生新颖性得分更高的点子,而在预防定向的情境中则会产生实用性得分更高的点子;而低亲社会动机的个体,在促进定向和预防定向的情境中,所产生点子的新颖性得分、实用性得分没有显著差异。
本研究为创造力领域的研究提供了一个新的视角,即:从受助对象的角度切入,探究亲社会动机与创造力之间的关系。并且,通过对中介机制的探讨,揭示了两者之间产生关系的原因。因此,本研究对创造力相关的研究具有一定的理论贡献。在实践上,本研究可以启发管理者在对员工进行激励时,重视对亲社会动机的激发,从而使员工有更好的创造力表现。
其他摘要Creativity plays an important role in the development and progress of human beings, including strategic planning of building an innovative country for the national level, and problem solving of interpersonal relationship for the individual level.
Therefore, scholars want to explore its influence factors and production mechanisms. Most of creativity research before mainly focused on the perspective of creators, and explored what kind of personality could affect creativity or what factors could promote creativity by improving intrinsic motivation. However, in real life, creativity is not only related to the creator himself, but also with the beneficiary, because creativity is often used to help others to solve problems. At this moment, we need to jump out of the creator perspective, and consider the situation of the beneficiary. That is, we need to study the relationship between prosocial motivation and creativity. The importance of prosocial motivation, referring to the desire to expend effort to benefit other people, should be highlighted, because it reflects the accentuation of recipients and their situations.
We investigated the relationship between prosocial motivation and individual creativity through two experiments. The first study used 2􀁨2 between-subject design and both intrinsic motivation and prosocial motivation were manipulated. 80 college students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions and completed a creative task (generating ideas for selling old books on campus). The second study used 2􀁨2 between-subject design and both prosocial motivation and regulatory focus were manipulated. 88 college students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions and completed a creative task (generating ideas for increasing profits of a dress shop). The results showed that prosocial motivation could promote individual creativity.Meanwhile, perspective taking and empathy mediated the relationship betweenprosocial motivation and creativity. Furthermore, prosocial motivation and regulatoryfocus had interaction effects on creativity. Individuals with high prosocial motivation generated ideas, which were more novel and less useful in promotion focus situations than in prevention focus situations.
This study provides a new perspective for creativity research, which is to explore the relationship between prosocial motivation and creativity from the perspective of beneficiaries. In practice, managers should pay more attention to stimulate employees' prosocial motivation, so that they can have better creative performance.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19940
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李阳. 亲社会动机对个体创造力的影响机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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