PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
隔代教养老年人心理需求与心理健康状况
其他题名Grandparents’Psychological Needs and Mental Health in Raising Grandchildren
张宝莹
学位类型同等学力硕士
导师韩布新
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词隔代教养 老年人 心理需求 心理健康
摘要隔代教养现象在我国比较普遍。美国学者的研究表明教养孙辈给祖辈带来压力等影响,此外也有些积极影响。国内对于隔代教养的研究主要集中在对孙辈的影响方面,对老年人在教养孙辈时的心理状况研究较少。本研究使用问卷法,采用方便取样法,在北京市和佳木斯市调查了810 位隔代教养老年人的心理需求和心理健康状况,对这部分老年群体心理状况做了量化深入研究。对于家庭和社会关注并帮助这部分老年群体提供了参考依据。
本研究自编《隔代教养情况调查表》 ,详细调查了老年人自身的基本情况及隔代教养情况,并分析了隔代教养老年人的性别、年龄、教养情况等特点。 本研究自编《隔代教养老年人心理需求问卷》,经过项目分析、信效度分析,各项指标较好,符合心理测量要求。经统计分析,提出隔代教养老年人的心理需求包括生活保障、安全环境、医疗保障、活动交往、尊重及隔代教养认同等 6个方面。
本研究使用了生活满意度问卷、老年抑郁量表(GDS-4) 、短孤独量表、以及中国人情感量表(简版)调查隔代教养老年人的心理健康状况。题量较少,方便调查,且能有效反应出隔代教养老年人的心理健康状况。
被调查隔代教养老年人的心理需求满足状况及心理健康状况总体较好。非本地户籍老年人的医疗保障得分显著低于本地老年人。孙辈年龄越大,老年人活动交往需求的满足状况越好, 非本地户籍者的活动交往需求得分显著低于本地户籍者。各需求中隔代教养认同的得分最高,女性在尊重和隔代教养认同的得分都显著高于男性,孙辈年龄增大,隔代教养认同得分呈下降趋势,65~69 岁者隔代教养认同得分显著低于其它年龄段。 67.90%老年人平均每天与孙辈在一起时间超过8小时,但进一步检验表明老年人并没有因为看孩子时间更长而心理健康更糟糕。
6.54%老年人可能有抑郁问题,需要关注。与子女教养观念一致程度越高,隔代教养老年人的心理需求满足状况越好,心理健康状况越好。有慢病或生活事件的老年人,心理需求满足和心理健康状况显著更差。 23.09%老年人不愿意教养孙辈,他们的各项心理需求得分和心理健康得分都显著低于愿意教养孙辈者。 与子女的教养观念一致程度、教养孙辈意愿、慢病情况及生活事件等是影响隔代教养老年人的心理需求满足状况及心理健康状况的主要因素。
研究者建议政府为非本地户籍老年人提供更方便的异地医疗保障;子女为老人留出可以自己休息、自己活动的时间,帮助来自异地的老人建立新的人际交往圈;社区为带孙辈的老年人组织合适的活动,积极提供隔代教养知识讲座、咨询等服务,提高两代人教养观念的一致程度;家庭成员须关注隔代教养老年人的身心健康状况,多关心患有慢病、发生生活事件的老年人,给予他们更多休息时间和支持;在条件允许的前提下,充分尊重老年人的教养意愿;另外,政府在制定和实施延长退休年龄的政策同时,应考虑到我国普遍隔代教养的现状,推出其它能够帮助父母育儿的政策。
其他摘要 Grandparents raising grandchildren is common in China. Researches in the U.S. show that raising grandchildren bring pressures to grandparents, and also some positive impacts. Domestic researchers mainly focus on grandchildren, seldom on grandparents. This research used questionairs and convenience sampling methodology, surveyed 810 Grandparents who were raising their grandchildren in Beijing and Jiamusi cities, and analyzed their psychological status thoroughly. The results and analysis give references for the families and society to care and help these elders.
Self-developed Grandparents’ investigation table was used to collect grandparents' general information and their raising grandchildren information.
Self-developed "Grandparents' Psychological Needs Questionnaire" were usd to investigate psychological needs of grandparents raising grandchildren. The results of item analysis, reliability and validity testing shows that this self-developed questionnaire has good indicators complying with psychometrics requirements. There are 6 components in grandparents’ psychological needs, including living guarantee, security and living conditions, Medicare guarantee, activity and association, respect, and grandparents' upbringing identity. Life Satisfaction questionnaire, Geriatric Depression Scale (4 items), Short Loneliness Scale and the Chinese Affect Scale (simplified version) were used to survey grandparents' mental health status. They were short scales making it easy to investigate. They also gave effective results.
The surveyed grandparents were overall in good mental health status and had good psychological needs satisfaction. On Medicare guarantee as well as activity and association needs, non-local grandparents scored significantly lower than local ones. The older grandchildren, the higher scores on activity and association need. Compared with other needs, grandparents' upbringing identity need had highest score. On grandparents' upbringing identity need, women scored significantly higher than men; as grandchildren’s age getting older, the score decrease, and 65~69 years old grandparents scored lowest than the others. 67.90% surveyed elders stayed with their grandparents more than 8 hours per day. But further analysis showed that they didn't have worse mental health status. 6.54% may have depression. They needed attention and help. With more consistency in upbringing conception between two generations, grandparents had better mental health status and better psychological needs satisfaction. With chronic disorders and life events in recent half a year, elders had worse mental health status and worse psychological needs satisfaction. 23.09% were not willing to raise their grandchildren, and they scored significantly lower in every factors than those who were willing to. The consistency in upbringing conception between two generations, wills to raise their grandchildren, with or without chronic disorders and life events are main factors that affect grandparents mental health status and psychological needs satisfaction.
The wirters of this research suggest that the government provdide more convenient Medicare for non-local elders;Young parents allocate more rest and leisure time for grandparents, and help non-local elders make new friends; The community organize suitable activities for elders raising their grandchildren, and provide lectures and consulting services about how to bring up grandchildren better and to improve the consistency in upbringing conception between two generations; Family members care grandparents' physical and mental health status, and pay more attention to those who have chronic disorders and life events by providing them more support and more time taking rest; When it is possible, young parents fully repect the elders' upbringing willingness; And, when formulating and implementing the policies of extending retirement age, the goverment take into account the present popular situation of grandparents raising grandchildren in China, and launch other policies that can help parental.
学科领域健康心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20061
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张宝莹. 隔代教养老年人心理需求与心理健康状况[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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