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被迫接受和被迫选择重大事物失去中的情绪—来自行为和脑成像的证据
其他题名ions from Being Forced to Accept or to Choose a Vital Loss—Evidences from Behavior and Brain Imaging
李琦
学位类型博士
导师罗劲
2011-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词重大失去 对比效应 情绪 金钱补偿 记忆 功能性磁共振成像 金钱补偿 功能性磁共振成像
摘要在重大的灾难面前,当个体面临诸如失去双腿,失去眼睛,或是失去儿子还是失去女儿的重大失去抉择时,都会产生强烈的情绪。对于个人来说,灾后重大失去所带来的后遗症,不仅仅是生存问题,更可能是伴随终身的心理问题。然而如何在没有真实伤害的实验室条件下研究重大失去的情绪尚不清楚。本研究试图通过一系列行为和脑成像实验,在没有真实伤害的情况下研究重大失去相关的情绪及相应的脑机制,并初步探讨缓解这种情绪的方法。首先,通过行为实验1和脑成像实验2,探讨了被迫想象重大失去是否能唤起重大失去的情绪。结果发现,被迫想象重大失去的情绪记忆优势效应消失,人们想象普通事物失去的脑激活比想象重大事物失去时更强烈。由此我们推测,由于自我防御机制的存在,人们不愿想象重大失去从而抑制了重大失去情绪地唤起。其次,行为实验3和脑成像实验4巧妙地利用了人们的自我防御机制,探讨了被迫选择重大失去是否能唤起重大失去的情绪。结果发现,被迫选择重大失去存在情绪记忆优势效应,人们进行重大事物失去抉择相比于普通抉择有更强烈的情绪区域的激活,这说明被迫选择重大失去唤起了强烈的负情情绪。那么,如何缓解这种负情情绪呢?行为实验5和脑成像实验6探讨了巨额金钱补偿能够缓解重大失去的情绪。结果发现,事物越重要,巨额金钱缓解失去相关情绪的能力就越低,然而尽管这样,巨额的金钱补偿依旧能够减低重大失去决策中的冲突情绪脑区。特别有意思的是,研究4还发现,相比于两个都是普通事物的失去抉择,人们在进行一个是普通一个是重大事物的失去抉择时,尽管同样失去一个等值的普通事物,负性情绪却大大降低。针对这一问题,行为实验7-9,通过探讨两个供选项重要性差异的对比效应是否能够影响重大失去的情绪及其可能的原因,发现由于重大事物的保留,使得普通事物变得更不重要了,从而减低了失去普通事物的负性情绪。总之,本研究初步在没有任何真实伤害的实验室条件下可靠地诱发了重大失去相关的情绪和Bold信号的变化,并从对比效应和金钱补偿角度探讨了缓解重大失去情绪的方法。这些结果对于应用于进化心理学、医学决策分析的效用理论、认知神经科学等多个领域提供神经机制的证据具有重要意义。 
其他摘要In the face of a vital disaster, for example, losing leggs, losing eyes, or making a vital loss decision “losing son or losing daughter”, emotions will be aroused. For individuals, it is undeniable that the aftermath of vital loss disaster brought not only a matter of survival, more likely to be associated with lifelong psychological problems. However, how to produce and study vital loss emotions in laboratory settings without substantial damage remain largely undefined. To address this gap in understanding, we designed nine studies to explore it. Experiment 1 (behavior study) and experiment 2 (imaging study): we explored whether vital loss emotions can be aroused by being forced to image the vital loss. The results showed that under imaging vital loss conditions, the emotion-superiority effect on memory disappeared. Furthermore, comparing to imaging trivial loss conditions, the brain activation under imaging vital loss conditions showed an attenuated activation. We conferred that the defense mechanism could prevent individuals from thoroughly imagining and experiencing the given loss situation and arouse emotions. Experiment 3 (behavior study) and experiment 4 (imaging study): we subtly makes use of the defense mechanism which could result in repeated trade-offs to people in order to minimize the disadvantages when forced to decide between two vital things and emotions will be comprehensively and automatically aroused without substantial damage. The results showed that under vital loss decisions, the emotion-superiority effect on memory appeared. Furthermore, our results revealed that the amygdala was more active and correlated positively with self-reported negative emotion associated with choice during vital loss decisions, when compared to trivial loss decisions. Our findings suggest that vital loss decisions produced strong emotions. How to relieve the negative emotion? Experiment 5 (behavior study) and experiment 6 (imaging study): we explored whether a huge compensation payment can relieve vital loss emotions. The results showed that the more important things were, the less ability of relief the huge compensation payment has. However, vital loss decision under the huge compensation payment showed an attenuated activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), which is associated with emotional conflict. Interestingly, experiment 4 (imaging study) also revealed when there was a choice between two losses in vital-trivial and trivial-trival loss decisions, trivial options were definitely lost in both conditions, but more activation of relief-related area appeared in vital-trivial loss decisions. To solve this problem, experiments 7-9 (behavior studies) were designed to explore the impact of contrast effects on vital loss emotions and its reasons. The results found that something particularly important being protected made the trivial things become increasingly less important and the negative emotion associated with losing trivial things reduced. In conclusion, this research aroused vital loss emotions and its bold signal in laboratory settings without substantial damage, and found both the contrast effects of importance of alternatives and a huge compensation payment can relieve the vital-related loss emotions. This research has shed light on the neural mechanisms involved in evolutionary psychology, utility model in medical decision making, and cognitive 
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20290
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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李琦. 被迫接受和被迫选择重大事物失去中的情绪—来自行为和脑成像的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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