|其他题名||Research on HBV-related stigma and its impact factors, mechanism of action and reduction strategy|
|关键词||乙肝污名态度 回避倾向 回避倾向 帮助意愿|
|摘要||乙肝污名现象是我国文化背景下出现的较为独特的一种污名现象，主要表现为乙肝病毒携带者在就业、教育等方面所遭遇的种种歧视。近年来由于相关政策的出台，乙肝污名的现象逐渐获得人们的关注。本研究从心理测量的角度出发，结合问卷调查和实验的方式，探索我国民众的乙肝污名态度的主要维度、影响乙肝污名态度的相关社会因素和心理因素，以及乙肝污名态度的作用因素——对与乙肝病毒携带者共事的心理顾虑，最后以实验的方法检验消除或降低乙肝污名态度的干预方法的有效性。结果表明： 第一，通过质化研究的方法了解到我国民众对乙肝污名态度主要是由于对于乙肝病毒传染的恐惧。在此基础上编制的乙肝污名态度问卷主要由三个维度构成，分别是回避倾向，雇佣污名和帮助意愿。在对不同人群的乙肝污名态度的差异检验中发现，乙肝污名态度并无性别方面的差异，但是存在受教育程度和对自身健康关注程度的差异，受教育程度越高的人群，乙肝污名的回避倾向、雇佣污名程度越低，帮助意愿越高，而对自身健康程度关注度较高的人群，则倾向于具有较强的乙肝污名回避倾向，在其它乙肝污名态度的维度上无显著差异。 第二，通过对相关变量的路径分析发现，乙肝病毒的传播知识，与乙肝病毒携带者的接触广度，与乙肝病毒携带者接触的风险认知和社会支配倾向对乙肝污名态度具有显著的预测作用，乙肝污名态度的三个因素分别作用于对与乙肝病毒携带者共事的顾虑因素，与乙肝病毒携带者的接触风险认知部分中介了乙肝病毒传染知识，乙肝接触广度对乙肝污名态度的影响作用。 第三，通过实验研究的方式，检验了消除或降低乙肝污名干预方法的有效性，结果显示，教育或传播乙肝知识是降低乙肝污名态度的有效手段，知识的教育不仅能够获得即时的污名态度的降低，还能够在30天后的追踪测量中仍表现出显著的作用；而接触的方法仅仅在干预后的短时间内降低被试的乙肝污名的回避倾向，其作用并不能持久，并且接触的方式对消除乙肝雇佣污名态度并无显著的作用。 上述发现明确了乙肝污名态度的结构，深化了对乙肝污名的影响因素和作用因素的认识，为政府相关反歧视政策的制定以及今后开展大范围的降低乙肝污名的项目提供了依据。|
Stigma related to Hepatitis B (abbreviated as HBV-related stigma) is a very special phenomenon in our cultural context. It happens particularly in the situation of employment, education and HBV-related stigma has received more attention in recent years due to the introduction of relevant policies. In this study, starting from the point of view of psychology measurement, combined with survey and experimental way, the psychology dimension of the HBV-related stigma attitude was explored, and the social and psychological factors as well as the psychological concerns arising from the employment of hepatitis B virus carriers were examined. Moreover, experimental method was introduced to measure the effectiveness of the method to eliminate HBV-related stigma. The results showed that: Firstly, from the qualitative research we came to understand that, for HBV-related stigma there was no attribution of their disease acquisition. Stigma was mainly because of fear of infection. On the basis of the preparation, HBV-related stigma questionnaire was developed and the dimension was explored. The HBV-related stigma was consist of three inter-correlated factors named as avoidance, employment stigma and help willingness respectively. At the same time, the difference test of the stigma attitudes of different groups was conducted. Results showed no gender differences, but significant discrepancy in the level of education, the degree of health concerns. The higher the education level of the population, the less negative they held the avoidance and employment stigma toward people living with hepatitis B, and the more positive of their help willingness. The higher degree people concern of their own health, the more negative they held the avoidance and employment stigma toward people living with hepatitis B. Secondly, results of the path analysis of the relevant variables showed that HBV infection knowledge, width of HBV contact, risk cognitive of HBV contact and social dominance orientation were demonstrated as significant predictors of the HBV-related stigma attitude which would also play a strong predictive role in predicting psychological concerns of hiring people living with HBV. Risk cognitive partially mediated the influence by knowledge of HBV infection, width of HBV contact on HBV-related stigma. Thirdly, results of the experimental research gave us the illustration that publicity of HBV-related knowledge was an effective means to reduce or to eliminate the HBV-related stigma. Knowledge propaganda was not only able to obtain the reduction of stigma attitude immediately, but also the 30 days of tracking measurement showed a significant effect; contact shows its effect only in the short time of intervention to reduce the stigma of avoidance and the effect cannot be sustained. What’s more, contact had no significant effect on the elimination of the hepatitis B employment stigma. These findings identified the structure of the HBV-related stigma attitudes, giving us more comprehensive understanding of the impact and role of social and psychological factors on HBV-related stigma, the stigma elimination experiment provided a theoretical basis for the formulation of government anti-discrimination policies, and in the future to carry out large-scale intervention to eliminate HBV-related stigma.
|刘颖. 乙肝污名态度的影响、作用机制及其消除对策[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.|
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