PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
Alternative TitleThe Specificity and Function of Local Biological
Thesis Advisor蒋毅
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword生物运动 局部生物运动 特异性
Abstract人类具有很强的识别生物体运动信息的能力,甚至当运动信息仅是由附着在头部和一些重要关节上的亮点的运动组成时,观察者对该信息检测和编码的优势依然存在。大量研究表明观察者可以从亮点组成的生物运动中提取很多重要信息和特征,如身份、动作类型、情绪状态、性别等。但将光点运动刺激倒置时,生物运动知觉会受到严重损害。绝大多数研究者将此倒置效应归结为整体加工的结果。最近有研究者发现了另一种依赖于局部运动信息的倒置效应,揭示了局部生物运动有可能包含了一些特异性信息。 本研究采用心理物理学实验范式结合脑电技术的方法试图研究局部生物运动信息的加工是否存在特异性,主要关注正立局部生物运动信息与倒立局部生物运动信息相比存在的加工优势及其功能。主要得到以下研究结果: (1) 研究一发现了局部生物运动信息的视觉搜索不对称性现象。 (2) 研究二发现了局部生物运动信息的主观时距延长效应,并且该效应在被试未知刺激性质的情况下依然存在。 (3) 研究三在成人以及学龄前儿童身上发现了局部生物运动信息的反射性注意定向效应,此外,局部生物运动信息能在较早的时间窗口上诱发与被试主观意识无关的早期注意定向负波。 总之,本研究发现局部生物运动信息在空间和时间维度上的加工均存在特异性,并且它能作为社会线索指引我们的注意,此外,研究发现的局部生物运动信息的倒置效应不依赖于任务以及被试的主观意识,支持局部生物运动信息加工特异性假说。对局部生物运动信息的加工特性进行研究有助于我们理解视觉加工的特异性问题,并对生物运动的加工机制有更深入的了解。
Other AbstractPeople are remarkably adept at recognizing the motion of biological entities in complex visual scenes, even when they are portrayed by a handful of point-lights attached to the head and major joints. It has been demonstrated that many characteristics such as identity, action, mental state and gender can be readily retrieved from the point-light walker. However, perception of biological motion is strongly impaired if the point-light displays are shown upside down. The inversion effect in biological motion has often been attributed to the impaired processing of global configural information. Notably, it has recently been shown that there is another inversion effect which relies on the local motion signals, indicating that local biological motion might contain some specific meaningful information. This research focuses on the processing advantage of upright compared with inverted local biological motion as well as the function of such processing, and aims to examine whether the brain mechanisms involved in local biological motion processing are “special” and can operate independent of any global configuration . Three studies were conducted to address these questions. 1. A robust visual search asymmetry effect was found for local biological motion processing. 2. A temporal dilation effect associated with biological motion signals was found, independent of global configuration and observer’s subjective awareness. 3. A reflexive attention orienting effect of local biological motion cues was found in both adults and preschool children. Moreover, local biological motion cues can trigger an early directing attention negativity (EDAN) in an early temporal window. In conclusion, the current study found the specificity of local biological motion processing in both spatial and temporal dimensions, and local biological motion can direct our attention as social cues. Moreover, the inversion effect for local biological motion found in our current study was task-irrelevant and independent of observer’s subjective awareness, in support of the “local biological motion specificity” notion. These findings shed new light on the mechanisms underlying biological motion perception as well as the specificity of visual processing.
Subject Area基础心理学
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王莉. 局部生物运动信息的加工特异性及其功能[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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