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返回抑制的功能和机制
Alternative TitleFunction and Mechanisms of Inhibition of Return
王治国
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor张侃
2011-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword返回抑制 眼跳 上丘 动态神经域模型 视觉搜索
Abstract返回抑制是一种注意定向现象,它指的是个体对线索位置目标的反应慢于非线索位置的目标。本论文探讨了返回抑制的功能和机制,主要发现如下:(1) 对外显的“搜索-探测范式”进行改进后进行的实验表明在该范式中应该使用较小的搜索刺激数量。(2) 支持先前研究者 (Klein, 1988; Klein & Macinnes, 1999) 提出的“返回抑制促进视觉搜索”这一假设,本研究在静态搜索和慢速动态搜索中发现的返回抑制效应,但是没有在快速动态搜索 (Horowitz & Wolfe, 1998) 中发现返回抑制效应。在动态搜索中,搜索刺激不断交换位置,任何“记忆”先前注意过位置的机制(比如返回抑制)都是无用的。(3) 集中于注视点的注意能够消除“线索-目标范式”中的返回抑制效应,表明返回抑制在行为层面上的表现受注意控制定势的调节。(4) 采用一个上丘的动态神经域模型 (Trappenberg, Dorris, Munoz, & Klein, 2001) 成功模拟了“回跳慢于前跳”这一行为现象。该结果表明“眼跳-眼跳范式”和“搜索-探测范式”(Klein & Macinnes, 1999) 中观测到的返回抑制效应至少部分上源于上丘自身的一种运动机制。(5) 本论文提出了两种解释涉及眼跳的返回抑制效应的机制:感觉机制和运动机制。实证研究表明这两种返回抑制机制在行为水平上有累加的效应。
Other AbstractThe present dissertation explored the function and mechanisms of inhibition of return (IOR), an orienting phenomenon characterized by slower responses to targets appearing at previously cued than to uncued locations. The key findings are: (1) With improved methodology, the present thesis explored IOR in visual search with a probe-following-search paradigm and the results supported the use of relatively small set size. (2) Supporting the proposition that IOR functions as a foraging facilitator in visual search (Klein, 1988; Klein & Macinnes, 1999), IOR effects were observed following static and slow dynamic search tasks but not for a fast dynamic search task (Horowitz & Wolfe, 1998) in which memorial mechanisms were rendered useless by randomly exchanging item locations. (3) A strong focussed attention at fixation eliminated IOR in a cue-target paradigm, suggesting that the behavioral manifestation of IOR can be modulated by attentional control settings. (4) Simulations in a dynamic neural field (DNF) model of the superior colliculus (Trappenberg, Dorris, Munoz, & Klein, 2001) reproduced the observation that saccades which reverse their vectors are slower to initiate than those which repeat vectors. This finding suggests that IOR effects observed in the saccade-saccade paradigms and the overt probe-following-search paradigm (Klein & Macinnes, 1999) are caused, or at least, contributed by a motor mechanism implemented in the superior colliculus. (5) Two mechanisms, sensory and motor, were proposed to explain IOR effects in the oculomotor system. Empirical observations confirmed that these two mechanisms have additive behavioral effects.
Subject Area应用心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20411
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王治国. 返回抑制的功能和机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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