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X光行李检测中危险品漏报的影响因素和对策
其他题名The Influence on the Miss Rate of Dangerous Objects in X-ray Luggage Screening Task and the Performance Improving Method
杨帆
学位类型博士
导师张侃
2011-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词X光行李检测 低事件率效应 视觉搜索 视觉复杂度 视觉显著性
摘要本文采用模拟X光行李检测任务,探讨如何降低危险品的漏报率,以及视觉复杂度、奖惩等各个因素对低事件率效应(漏报率随事件率降低而升高的现象)的影响。论文主要包含三个部分:第一部分通过改变视觉复杂度的部分维度(如物品重叠、噪声背景、干扰物品数量、目标和干扰物品的不透明度对比等),探索其对漏报率和低事件率效应的影响;第二部分是从实验程序方面分析低事件率效应产生的原因,并对现有的X光行李检测研究范式加以改进;第三部分讨论不同的奖惩方法及视觉显著性提示能否降低漏报率,以求找到实用可行的降低漏报率的方法。 结果发现:(1)改变视觉复杂度的部分维度,如物品重叠、噪声背景、干扰物品的数量、目标和干扰物品的不透明度对比,能改变漏报率,但不能消除低事件率效应。其中物品重叠比噪声背景对漏报率和判断标准的影响更大;(2)不能完全用判断标准的变化来解释低事件率效应,在研究事件率对漏报率的影响时,应该固定含有目标的搜索次数或总搜索次数;(3)文中提供的奖惩方法没有能够降低漏报率或消除低事件率效应;在事件率较低时,提供视觉显著性提示能降低漏报率,可应用于真实的X光行李检测。
其他摘要A simulated X-ray luggage screening task was used in this study to find out how to reduce the miss rate of dangerous objects, and how the visual complexity, payoff and so on affected the low prevalence effect (miss rate was lager as target prevalence was lower). The thesis consisted of three parts: In the fist part, I was trying to find out the influence on the miss rate and the low prevalence effect by changing some dimensions of visual complexity, such as items overlapping, noise background, number of interference items, and the contrast of opacity between target and interference items, etc.; the second part was to seek reasons that producing the low prevalence effect in the aspect of procedure. And the last part discussed whether the different methods of payoff and tips of visual saliency could reduce the miss rate, in order to find out a practical and feasible way to reduce the miss rate. The results showed that: (1) Varying some dimensions of visual complexity, such as overlapping, noise background, number of interference items, contrast of opacity between target and interference items, could change the miss rate, but could not eliminate the low prevalence effect. And items overlapping had more influence on miss rate and decision criteria than noise background; (2) The low prevalence effect could not be completely explained by the change of decision criteria; the number of trials with target or the total number of trials should be considered when studied how the target prevalence affected the miss rate; (3) Payoff which used in this study could not reduce the miss rate or cure the low prevalence effect; The tips of visual saliency can reduce the miss rate, so that it could be applied to the real X-ray baggage screening.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20432
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨帆. X光行李检测中危险品漏报的影响因素和对策[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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