PSYCH OpenIR  > 社会与工程心理学研究室
电动自行车危险性驾驶行为研究
其他题名A Study of the Risk Riding Behaviors of Electric Bike Users in China
姚林
学位类型博士
导师张倪
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词电动自行车
摘要 
电动自行车在我国城市交通系统中扮演着重要的角色。近年来,随着电动自行车数量的急剧增加,由其引发的交通安全问题也越来越受到人们的关注。本研究拟从人的因素出发,探讨电动自行车的驾驶行为特点和事故影响因素,以及产生危险性驾驶行为的心理机制。 研究一通过焦点小组访谈考查电动自行车用户对交通安全的看法和态度。研究二通过问卷调查法研究电动自行车的驾驶行为特点和事故影响因素,并构建了驾驶行为、风险认知和安全态度之间的关系模型。研究三和研究四选取最具代表性的两种危险性驾驶行为(闯红灯行为和超速行为)作为个案进行详细研究。研究三A和研究四A分别通过观察和访谈法了解危险性驾驶行为的基本特征和影响因素,之后研究三B和研究四B通过问卷调查法考查与危险性驾驶行为有关的心理社会因素,并试图运用计划行为理论框架去解释和预测电动自行车的危险性行为。最后,研究4C在总结研究四A和四B的基础了提出了通过速度反馈减少超速行为的假设,并通过实验法验证了干预措施的有效性。 本论文的主要研究结果如下: (1)电动自行车用户的交通安全意识薄弱,危险性驾驶行为较为普遍。由于缺乏专门的培训或教育,大多数电动自行车用户对于道路驾驶的知识比较匮乏,对交通法规缺乏理解和尊重,他们更多的是依赖驾驶技能去保证自身的安全; (2)电动自行车的驾驶行为可以分为六个维度,分别是:攻击性驾驶行为、错误、违规行为、逞强行为、冲动行为、以及超速行为。其中攻击性驾驶行为、错误和超速行为都会显著地增加事故发生的可能性。 (3)风险认知和安全态度都能显著地影响电动自行车驾驶行为,从而间接影响事故。风险认知能力越高,对交通安全的态度越积极,个体就会更少地从事危险性驾驶行为,其结果是发生事故的可能性也越小。 (4)行为态度、主观规范和知觉行为控制等计划行为理论变量对危险性驾驶行为有显著影响。包含了风险认知、效用认知等扩展变量的计划行为理论能够很好地解释和预测电动自行车的闯红灯和超速行为,其解释力超过了30%。 本文研究结果不仅有助于我们更好地理解与电动自行车安全相关的驾驶行为特点和心理认知因素特点,相关结论还为制定政策法规或干预方案去降低危险性驾驶行为提供了有力的依据。
其他摘要Electric bikes (E-bikes) play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Traffic safety for e-bike riders becomes an issue of growing public concern as the number of fatalities and injuries increases. By examining the characteristics of riding behaviors, this study aims to identify risk factors affecting accident involvement of e-bike riders and to explore the psychological determinants of risky riding. Study 1 explored the e-bike riders’ views and attitudes about the issues relevant to safety and risk-taking behaivors using focus group discussions. Study 2 examined risk factors affecting the accident involvement of e-bike riders and established a relationship between safety attitude, risk perception, and risk riding behaviors by conducting a questionnaire-based survey. Red-light running behavior and speeding, which are two typical types of riding behaviors of hightly dangerous, were selected as case studies in Study 3 and Study 4. First, Study 3A and Study 4A investigated the behavior characteristics and factors associated with risk riding using field observations and focus group discussions. Then, Study 3B and Study 4B explored the psychosocial factors contributing to risk riding behaviors using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework. Finally, Study 4C tested the hypothesis of using speed feedback to reduce speeding behavior by a controlled experiment. The main results are as follows: (1) E-bike riders in China showed a week awareness of road safey and risk riding behaviors, such as red-ligh running and speeding, were rather prevalent for them. In addition, as a lack of compulsory training and education programs, most e-bike riders had a poor knowledge of road safey and traffic rules. (2) Factor analysis yielded a 6-factor solution of e-bike riding behaviors including aggressive riding behaviors, errors, rule violations, push limits and stunts, implusive behaviors and speeding. Regression analysis showed that aggressive riding behaviors, errors, and speeding were signiticant predictors of self-reported accidents. (3) The structural equation model analysis indicated that safety attitudes and risk perception both significantly affected aberrant riding behaviors. E-bike riders with stronger positive attitude towards safety and more worry and concern about their traffic risk tended to be less likely to have aberrant riding behaviors. (4) TPB variables including attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control all emerged as significant predictors of risk riding behaviors A predictive model including traditional TPB variables, extended variables as risk perception and utility perception, as well as demographic measures could explain over 30% of the variance in red-light running and speeding intention. This program of research facilitates the understanding of safety issues from an e-bike rider’s perspective and provides important information on factors influencing risk riding behaviors. Practical implications for improving road safety of e-bike riders and future directions for research in this area are discussed.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20436
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
姚林. 电动自行车危险性驾驶行为研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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