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威胁状态下政治信任的变化及其对政治态度和行为的影响
其他题名The Change and Influence of Political Trust under Threat
张警吁
学位类型博士
导师王二平
2010-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词政治信任 信任变化 体制防御 威胁
摘要政治信任是民众对政府和体制的信心和期望的体现,是衡量民众与政府关系的重要指标。在当前社会转型期,研究政治信任的作用及变化机制具有重要意义。本研究通过社会态度调查、现场问卷调查和实验法,探讨面临各种威胁时,个体政治信任的变化及其对政治态度和行为的影响,得到如下结论: 1) 威胁状态下个体政治信任的变化受到既有信任程度的影响。民众在威胁状态下,会出现对既有信任程度较高的政府(中央政府)更加信任,而对既有信任程度较低的政府(农村基层政府)更加不信任的“极化”现象; 2) 如政府政策能够满足威胁状态下个体的特定情绪需要,则能提高个体的满意感并因此提高民众对政府的信任程度。愤怒情绪状态下的被试,会更加信任推行消除愤怒情绪政策的政府;害怕情绪状态下的被试,会更加信任推行消除害怕情绪政策的政府; 3) 当知觉到体制威胁及死亡威胁时,高政治信任的个体会表现出对现有体制更加明显的防御反应(如抗议攻击中国政府的西方媒体,对批评中国社会的外国人产生消极态度,对腐败分子给予更严厉惩罚的意向),而低信任的个体则不会出现维护现有体制的反应,甚至可能表现出对现有体制更不信任的态度与行为。
其他摘要As an important indicator to evaluate the citizen-government relationship, political trust is people’s confidence and expectation toward government and political system. In threatening conditions, political trust might change and it might have greater influence on subsequent political attitudes and behavior. Using large-scale social survey, questionnaire field study and experiments, the present study investigated the change and influence of political trust when people were in threatening conditions. Several conclusions could be made as follows: First, political trust toward government polarized in threatening conditions. Participants in threatening conditions, evaluated the central government (highly trusted) as more trustworthy while evaluated rural local government (lowly trusted) as less trustworthy than participants in control conditions. Second, political trust toward government could be improved by satisfying the specific emotional need of people in threatening conditions. Participants induced to feel anger were more likely to trust the government who implemented policies which reduced anger; while participants who were induced to feel fear were more likely to trust the government who implemented policies which reduced fear Third, perceived threat and induced threat were capable of increasing system defensive reactions among those who hold a high trust toward the current political system. The low trusting people, on the other hand, would not change their attitude or behavior or showed more cynical reactions in threatening conditions comparing to those in non-threatening situations
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20447
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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GB/T 7714
张警吁. 威胁状态下政治信任的变化及其对政治态度和行为的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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