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非强戒期毒品成瘾人员复吸风险评估量表的编制及初步应用
其他题名Development and Preliminary Application of the Relapse Risk Assessment Scale for Non-Incarcerated Drug Addicts
黄宗祯
学位类型同等学力硕士
2015-07
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词毒品成瘾 复吸 高危因素 量表
摘要预防毒品成瘾人员复吸是成瘾研究领域的热点和难点。目前国内外研究已对复吸的生理、心理和社会等各方面的风险因素进行了较多的基础研究;然而,利用这些研究成果,针对成瘾人员(特别是非强戒期成瘾人员)复吸风险因素进行综合评估的测量工具仍很缺乏。本研究以生理-心理-社会多元模型为理论依据,在文献调研、临床经验总结、个别访谈和专家研讨等基础上,从生理(稽延性戒断症状、强迫性)、心理(负性情绪、错误认识)和社会(线索暴露、社会支持)三方面6个维度构建复吸风险评估初始量表,通过预测试形成最终量表,随后对269名自愿戒毒康复人员进行正式测试,系统评估毒品成瘾人员的复吸风险,具有明显的理论意义和应用价值。 具体得出以下结论: 1. 编制的非强戒期戒毒人员复吸风险评估量表直观地体现了该人群复吸风险的几个方面,符合现实情况。量表以生理-心理-社会多元模型为理论依据,由三方面6因素构成,即生理(稽延性戒断症状、强迫性)、心理(负性情绪、错误认识)和社会(线索暴露、社会支持),信效度良好,可以作为非强戒期毒品成瘾人员复吸风险的评估工具。 2. 不同性别的自愿戒毒人员在复吸风险各维度与总分上不存在显著性差异。 3、自愿戒毒人员在稽延性戒断症状维度上存在显著的年龄段差异,25岁及以下戒毒人员的稽延性戒断症状在各年龄段中表现最为严重。 4、传统毒品吸食者在稽延性戒断症状、强迫性、负性情绪、错误认知、支持缺乏方面的表现均比新型毒品吸食者要严重,复吸的风险也更大。 5、操守时间3个月以下的戒毒人员在稽延性戒断症状、强迫性、负性情绪、错误认知、线索暴露维度上的表现均比操守时间36个月以上的戒毒人员严重,复吸风险也更大。 6、无工作的戒毒人员在强迫性、负性情绪、支持缺乏维度上的表现均比有固定全时工作的戒毒人员严重,复吸风险也更大;部分时间工作的戒毒人员在支持缺乏维度上的表现比有固定全时工作的戒毒人员严重,表明他们在社会及家庭方面获得的支持较少,复吸风险也更大。 7、有婚姻并与配偶同住的自愿戒毒者在除稽延性戒断症状以外的维度均比其他婚况的自愿戒毒者要轻,复吸的风险也更小。
其他摘要Relapse prevention among drug addicts has been regarded as a central and difficult area of addiction research. Currently, many international and indigenous studies have investigated the biological, psychological and social risk factors of relapses, but the development of comprehensive assessment applying previous research findings on the risks in relapse among drug addicts (especially those within the non-incarcerated settings) remained very limited. In accordance with the biopsychosocial multifactor model as a theoretical foundation, and through literature review, clinical expertise, case interviews, and panel discussions, the original risk evaluation scale was constructed from the biological (withdrawal symptoms, and obsessive compulsiveness), psychological (negative affect, and cognitive bias), and social factors (cue exposure, and social support) comprising three latent factors and six minor dimensions, and developed into the final scale based on a pilot test. Subsequently, the scale was formally assessed by 269 drug addicts undergoing volunteered rehabilitation, and their relapse risks were systematically evaluated based on obvious theoretical implications and practical values. The research entails with the following conclusions: 1. The Relapse Risk Assessment Scale for Non-Incarcerated Drug Addicts directly reflected the facets of relapse risks among this population, in line with reality. The scale based on the biopsychosocial multifactor model as the theoretical foundation, was structured from three latent factors and six minor dimensions, that is the biological (withdrawal symptoms, and obsessive compulsiveness), psychological (negative affect, and cognitive bias), and social factors (cue exposure, and social support), with good validity and reliability, and can be used as an evaluation inventory for assessment of relapse risks for the non-incarcerated drug addicts. 2. No significant differences in the dimensions and final scores for relapse risks were found among drug addicts with different genders that were currently undergoing rehabilitation. 3. Drug addicts that volunteered to rehabilitate nevertheless showed significant age-related differences in the dimension of withdrawal symptoms, those that aged 25 years and less were among the most severe in withdrawal symptoms among all the age groups. 4. Moreover, those that took traditional-type drugs showed more severe levels in terms of withdrawal symptoms, compulsion, negative affect, biased cognition, lack of support, as compared to those took new-type drugs, and exhibit higher risks in relapses. 5. Drug addicts that were rehabilitated under three months showed more severe levels in dimensions of withdrawal symptoms, compulsion, negative affect, biased cognition, and cue exposure as compared to those that were rehabilitated over 36 months, and exhibit higher risks in relapses. 6. Drug addicts that were unemployed showed higher levels in compulsion, negative affect, lack of support dimensions as compared to those with regular full-time employment, and exhibited higher risks in relapses; those with part-time employment showed more severe scores in terms of lack of support as compared to addicts with regular full-time employment, suggesting they acquired less support from society and family, which heightened the risk in relapses. 7. Voluntarily rehabilitated drug addicts that were married and live with spouse were lower in all the relapse risk dimensions except for levels of withdrawal symptoms, and exhibited lower risks in relapses.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20560
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
黄宗祯. 非强戒期毒品成瘾人员复吸风险评估量表的编制及初步应用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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