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大学新生道德发展水平与心理健康关系的研究
其他题名Moral Development and Mental Health: An Empirical Study of First Year College Students
王利萍
学位类型同等学力硕士
2014-07
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词道德发展 心理健康 大学新生 实证研究
摘要大学生是未来社会的劳动者,主要建设者。他们的道德水平和心理健康水平两者都关系到他们在未来工作中的生产贡献能力(或者反过来说,破坏能力)。可以说,大学生的道德发展和心理健康水平,相比于他们的智力知识水平,是国家人力资本水平和质量的另一大决定因素。鉴于这两个方面的重要性,二者之间相互关系的话题也显得弥足重要。因为如果二者之间存在某些内在的联系的话,搞清楚其间关系对我们进一步理解二者发展变化的规律,对人才培养训练的实践都有重要的启示意义。 但通过文献检索和回顾发现目前研究存在两大明显的局限:首先是对二者关系的研究多停留在经验讨论层面,显得零散、表浅,缺乏明确、可靠的理论基础。因此,将二者关系的分析建立在一个系统的理论框架上的研究是目前急需的。另一大局限是只停留在说理辨析层面,据掌握的文献,尚无研究者对二者关系进行实证检测。缺乏实证检验,仅依赖直觉辩论的知识可靠性极大降低。另外,也会使得对两个重要变量关系的研究无法深入。 有鉴于此,本研究尝试对大学生的心理健康水平和道德发展水平二者之间的关系进行初步的理论梳理并用实证数据对建立在理论推演下的一系列研究假设进行检测。本研究采用柯尔伯格的道德认知发展水平理论捕捉大学生的道德层面,并以SCL-90的因子维度作为心理健康的操作化定义。本研究将道德发展水平对心理健康的影响机制概括为这样一个框架:道德发展水平通过认知失调和人际冲突两条路径导致不健康的情绪和态度后果从而影响心理健康。在此基础上,本研究提出了道德发展水平影响SCL-90特定维度的具体研究假设。 另外,考虑到大学新生在道德发展上的差异性和心理健康问题的突出性上都最为特殊,因此本研究以大学新生为研究对象人群。本研究采用了柯尔伯格道德水平测试和SCL-90心理健康症状自评量表两个标准测试工具,对北方一所普通全日制本科(四年制)的新生共1144,在多个时间和场地分批进行了调查测试。最终获得了1079人的有效样本。通过相关分析、交叉表检验、方差分析等统计手段,本研究发现: 1.性别、年龄、农村或城市户口、父母教育程度等因素对大学新生的道德发展水平与心理健康总体上影响很小。 2.本研究中大学新生的心理健康在强迫症状和人际关系敏感两个维度上相对突出,检出率分别占了26.18%和16.81%。其次是抑郁、焦虑、敌对和偏执,检出比率在8%到10%之间。这些结果与已有研究相类似。 3. 本研究样本中达到习俗水平的学生占绝大多数(83.2%),少数学生达到后习俗水平(约9.5%)或停留于前习俗水平(约7.3%)。这些结果与其它研究中的分布结果也是接近的。 4.本研究预测了道德发展阶段水平在心理健康的人际关系敏感、焦虑、抑郁、偏执、敌对等五个维度上存在差异,实证结果发现在躯体化、人际关系敏感和偏执三个维度上差异达到显著水平,部分支持了研究假设。总体来说,在理论预测道德水平不会影响到的心理健康维度上,实证结果基本上支持;在理论预测道德水平会影响到的心理健康维度上,得到了部分实证结果支持。
其他摘要As the main power of the workers and builders in the future, college students get more attention on their ability to contribute to the production of future work which is be related both their moral standards and mental health (or conversely, undermine the ability). So we can say that the level of the students' moral development and mental health, compared to their intellectual level of knowledge, is another determinants in the national level and quality of human capital. Given the importance of these two aspects , the relationship between the college students' moral standards and mental health appears surrounding important. As the reason that if there is some intrinsic connection between that two aspects, we 'd better to figure out their relationship that will make significant enlightenment to our understanding of that two aspects' improvement and changed rules, and also to the practices of personnel training. However, for this important issue, literature search and review attacks us that there are two significant limitations in current research: One is that the study of the relationship between the moral standards and mental health stays at the level of experience discussion, which is fragmented, superficial, lack of clear and reliable theoretical foundation. Therefore, the study, which is based on a systematic theoretical framework to analyze the relationship between that two aspects, is needed urgently. Another limitation is that the recent researches of the above relationship only stay in the discrimination level reasoning. According to these literatures, there is no researchers on the relationship between the two aspects, using empirical test. Lack of empirical testing means only depending on the intuitive debating knowledge, with the reduced reliability. In addition, the relationship of that two important variables can not be in-depth study. For this reason, this study attempts to comb the preliminary theory for the relations between the psychological health level and moral development level of the college students. And then the empirical data should be used to test a series of hypothesis which are set up under the theoretical deduction, with significance to compensate for the limitations of existing researches. This research uses the moral cognitive development theory to capture the moral level of college students which is put by Kohlberg. And the SCL - 90 factor dimension is used as operationalizational definition of mental health. This research sums such a framework towards the influence mechanism of moral development level on mental health: the level of moral development through cognitive dissonance and interpersonal conflict that two paths leads to unhealthy emotions and attitudes which affects mental health consequences. On this basis, this study proposed the moral development level influence SCL - 90 specific dimensions. In addition, considering the diversity on the moral development and the prominent nature of mental health problems of the freshman are the most special, so that we choose the college students as the research object of this research. This study adopted two standard test tools those are Lawren Kohlberg’s moral level test and SCL - 90 symptoms self evaluation scale of mental health, Our test is for a regular full-time undergraduate (four-year) on 1144 freshmen in the north, in more than one time and places to carry on the investigation and test in turn. Eventually, we won the 1079 valid samples. Through correlation analysis, cross table test, variance analysis and other statistical methods, this study found that: 1. Gender, age, rural or urban registered permanent residence, and parents' education level will have little impact on the level of college students moral development and mental health on the whole. 2. In the study, the mental health of college freshmen in forced symptoms and sensitive interpersonal relationship is relatively outstanding, with rate accounted for 26.18% and 26.18% respectively. Followed by the depression, anxiety, hostility and paranoid, with the ratio between 8% and 10%. These results are similar with aged researches. 3. The sample in this study attached to custom level accounted for the vast majority (83.2%), a few students reach the postconventional level (around 9.5%) or stay in preconventional level (around 7.3%). The distribution characteristics of these results and is also close to other researchs. 4. This study predicts the level of moral development stage have differences in the mental health of interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, depression, paranoia, and hostility. And the empirical results demonstrate the differences reach significant level on somatization, interpersonal and sensitivity, which partly supports our hypothesis. In general, the theory predicts the moral level do not affect the mental health dimension, the empirical results support that basically; the theory predicts moral level can affect the mental health dimensions, that some empirical results support.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20604
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王利萍. 大学新生道德发展水平与心理健康关系的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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