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城市居民共情、宽恕对生活满意的影响:性别的调节作用
其他题名Effect of empathy, forgiveness on life satisfaction of urban residents:The moderating role of gender
刘悦
学位类型同等学力硕士
2014-07
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词共情 宽恕 生活满意 性别
摘要生活满意是众多心理学家关注的热点问题。影响生活满意度的因素多种多样。有研究显示共情影响生活满意度,高共情者较之低共情者显示出更高的生活满意度。另一些研究表明宽恕也影响生活满意度,更愿意宽恕他人冒犯的个体报告出更高的生活满意度。此外,不少研究还表明共情直接影响宽恕,高共情者更倾向于宽恕他人的冒犯行为。本研究将在以上研究的基础上,探讨我国城市居民共情、宽恕和生活满意之间的关系,共情和宽恕能否影响生活满意度?进一步的,宽恕是否在共情和生活满意之间中介效应显著?以往研究还关注共情、宽恕和生活满意的性别差异,但未得出一致结论。本研究也将探讨我国城市居民共情、宽恕和生活满意度是否具有性别差异,并进一步研究如果共情、宽恕影响生活满意度,并且宽恕在共情和生活满意之间起到中介作用,那么在共情、宽恕对生活满意度的影响中,性别是否起到调节作用?在共情-宽恕-生活满意的中介模型中,性别是否同样起到调节作用?综上,本研究分为三部分:1.共情、宽恕和生活满意的性别差异研究 2.共情、宽恕对生活满意的影响研究,以及宽恕在共情和生活满意之间的中介效应检验3.性别在共情、宽恕和生活满意之间的调节效应检验本研究采用多阶段抽样的方法,从北京、抚顺、重庆、温州、乌鲁木齐等城市抽取多名被试。采用人际反应指数量表、宽恕量表和生活满意度量表对被试施测,获得有效样本3537份。通过对数据的描述分析、相关分析、回归分析得出如下结论:1.共情中幻想、观点采择和个人痛苦子维度性别差异显著,共情性关心维度的性别差异不显著;宽恕中宽容和(不)记恨子维度性别差异不显著;生活满意度的性别差异显著,女性显著高于男性。2.观点采择和个人痛苦对生活满意有显著影响。观点采择能够正向预测生活满意,而个人痛苦可以反向预测生活满意。幻想和共情性关心对生活满意度的影响不显著。3.宽容和(不)记恨对生活满意均有显著影响,都可以正向预测生活满意度。4.宽容在观点采择和生活满意之间中介效应显著;(不)记恨在观点采择、个人痛苦和生活满意之间中介效应显著。5.只有在(不)记恨对生活满意度的影响中,性别的调节效应显著。在共情-(不)记恨-生活满意的中介模型中,性别同样在(不)记恨对生活满意的影响中存在显著的调节作用。女性越记恨表现出更低的生活满意度,而对男性来说,记恨程度和生活满意度无关。研究结论及其现实意义:1.城市居民中男性的生活满意度显著低于女性。这个结论提醒我们在生活中应该更多关注男性的需求和心理调适。2.观点采择和个人痛苦对生活满意有不同的影响。其中观点采择正向预测生活满意度,个人痛苦负向预测生活满意度。这个结论意味着,对于城市居民来说,生活中如果能多以他人为关注焦点,多为他人着想,多角度看待问题,接纳不同观点,将有助于提高其生活满意度。个人痛苦负向预测生活满意度。这个结论意味着,生活中有好事,也有坏事,如果我们总是易于受到负面事件的影响,沉浸在焦虑、恐慌等负面情绪中,则会导致生活满意度的降低。3.宽容和(不)记恨都对生活满意有显著正向预测作用。这个结论验证了宽容的人更快乐的生活经验。在生活中难免会有人际间的矛盾冲突,如果我们能对他人宽容一些,则自己的生活满意度也会提高。4.宽容和(不)记恨在观点采择和生活满意之间部分中介效应显著。说明如果我们在人际交往中能做到“换位思考”,对他人多一些理解,则更能够宽恕他人,从而减少对自己生活的不满。(不)记恨在个人痛苦和生活满意之间部分中介效应显著。给我们的启示是,如果我们易于受负面事件影响,总是心情不好,会导致对他人带给我们的伤害念念不忘,那样生活很难令我们满意。5.性别在(不)记恨对生活满意度的影响中调节效应显著,女性越不记恨生活满意度越高。这说明尤其对于女性来说,记恨他人是降低生活满意度的一个因素,记恨他人等于反复拿他人的过错惩罚自己。尽量忘记他人带来的伤害,自己也会更幸福。
其他摘要Life satisfaction enjoys a lot of attention by psychologists. We have already known that there are many factors influence life satisfaction. Some studies showed that empathy was an important factor of life satisfaction, which meant people who had a higher score on empathy reported higher life satisfaction than those with lower score. Other studies showed that forgiveness also had significant effect on life satisfaction, which meant people who were more willing to forgive interpersonal transgression would be more satisfied with their life. At the same time, many studies showed that empathy is an important predictor of forgiveness.In the present paper, we discuss whether empathy and forgiveness have effects on life satisfaction of urban residents. Further more, we discuss whether the relationship between empathy and life satisfaction was mediated by forgiveness.Former researchers focused on whether there were gender differences in empathy, forgiveness and life satisfaction, but they did not show the same conclusion. This research tries to explore whether there are gender differences in empathy, forgiveness and life satisfaction of Chinese urban residents. Furthermore, this study intends to find out whether gender plays moderating role in the relationship between empathy, forgiveness and life satisfaction supposing that empathy and forgiveness have effects on life satisfaction of urban residents and the relationship between empathy and life satisfaction is mediated by forgiveness. Details as follow:1. The research of gender differences in empathy, forgiveness and life satisfaction of Chinese urban residents.2. To explore the relationship between empathy, forgiveness and life satisfaction, and the mediating role of forgiveness between empathy, and life satisfaction.3. To explore the moderating role of gender between empathy, forgiveness and life satisfaction of urban residents.By multistage sampling, we assessed 3537 urban residents from many cities including Beijing, Fushun, Chongqing and Urumchi using Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), Trait Forgivingness Scale (TFS) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), using description analysis, correlation analysis, regression analysis and multiple regression analysis, the results showed that:1. There were gender differences in perspective-taking, personal distress and fantasy dimension of empathy, and no gender difference in empathic-concern dimension. There was no gender difference in no-hate and forgiveness dimension. There are gender differences in life satisfaction,and females reported a higher score.2. Perspective-taking had significant main effect on life satisfaction, while personal distress had significant negative effect on life satisfaction. Fantasy and empathic-concern did not have any effect on life satisfaction.3. Forgiveness and no-hate had significant positive effect on life satisfaction. 4. The relationship between perspective-taking and life satisfaction was partially mediated by forgiveness and no-hate; the relationship between personal distress and life satisfaction was partially mediated by no-hate.5. Gender had significant moderating effect between no-hate and life satisfaction,and this kind of effect occurred in the mediating-model of empathy-no-hate-life satisfaction. That meant for females, the more they hated the less life satisfaction they would get, but for males, there is no significant effect between no-hate and life satisfaction, Conclusions and practical significance:1. The life satisfaction score of males was significantly lower than that of females. That means we should show more concern to men’s need and mental accommodation. 2. Perspective-taking and personal distress had different predicting effect on life satisfaction. Perspective-taking had significant positive effect on life satisfaction. That means if we try to treat problems in different ways, accept others point of view and focus on others’ need, we will live a more satisfied life. On the other hand, personal distress had significant negative effect on life satisfaction. That means immersing in self’s deep panic and anxiety will lower our life satisfaction. 3. Forgiveness and no-hate had significant positive effect on life satisfaction. Stop-hating and forgiving the offenders will lead to a more satisfied life. 4. The partially mediation effect of forgiveness and no-hate between perspective-taking and life satisfaction is significant. From this result we can say if we shift from self-focus to other-centered focus view between interpersonal communication,we will be more forgiving, and then we will feel more satisfied with our life. No-hate played an important partially mediating role in the relationship between personal distress and life satisfaction. Sinking into panic and anxiety will result in more hate, then will lead to less satisfied life.5. Gender had significant moderating effect on the relationship between no-hate and life satisfaction. That means especially for women, those who always hold grudges will feel less satisfied with their life. The more transgression they forget the more satisfied life they will get. Key words:Empathy; Forgiveness; Life Satisfaction; Gender
学科领域健康心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20611
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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刘悦. 城市居民共情、宽恕对生活满意的影响:性别的调节作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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