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复杂系统操纵员心智模型相似性的影响因素
其他题名Antecedents of Mental Model Similarity of Complex System Operators
王巍
学位类型同等学力硕士
2014-07
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词复杂系统心智模型 心智模型相似性 社会网络 QAP分析
摘要大型复杂系统已经广泛应用于如核电站、航天系统、化工厂、通讯网络系统以及金融系统等对可靠性和安全绩效要求很高的组织中。在复杂系统的情境下,人机交互频繁,任务复杂多变,时间压力大,认知负荷重,这对操纵员提出了很高要求。操纵员凭借所构建的心智模型(Mental models)——即个体理解系统功能、预测系统状态的内部心理表征——去理解事件以及事件间的关联,对当前情境快速判断和决策,预测和推论系统的未来状态,从而决定自己采取什么行动,以及控制行动的执行过程,从而实现对系统的运行维护和应对处置。同时,由于大型复杂系统本身及其相关的人机交互系统变得日趋复杂,单凭个人已经根本无法胜任任务要求,团队已经取代个体成为执行任务的基本单元。复杂系统操纵员心智模型越相似,操作班组的系统操纵效率和安全绩效就越好,探讨如何提高操纵员心智模型相似性具有理论和实践意义。然而,当前大多数主要关注心智模型相似性如何提高团队运作效率和团队绩效,相对而言,很少研究探讨心智模型相似性的影响因素。鉴于此,本研究以从事复杂系统操纵的员工为对象,探讨操纵员心智模型相似性的影响因素。以54名复杂系统操纵员为对象,探讨工作经验、专业和互动频率三个因素如何影响操纵员心智模型的相似性。由于操纵员构成一个社会网络,采用社会网络分析程序UCINET分析数据,结果表明:(1)与假设相同,操纵员彼此间的工作经验越接近、专业背景越相似,共识会越多,其心智模型相似性会越高;(2)与假设恰恰相反,高压力情境下的工作互动频次越高,其心智模型相似性反而越低。本研究的理论贡献在于采用团队认知的理论框架并借鉴社会网络分析的方法揭示操纵员心智模型相似性的影响因素。团队总是处于复杂多变的内外部情境之中,人员重组就是常见的一种内部环境变化。此外,在实际工作中,互动常常超越团队边界的限制,与组织其他员工进行广泛互动。因此,组织的所有员工构成了潜在的社会网络。应用社会网络分析方法,突破团队边界的限制,提高了研究的生态效度。研究结果对如何提高员工心智模型相似性的管理实践也有启发和参考意义。
其他摘要Large-scale complex system has been widely used in industry of high requirement of reliability and safety performance such as nuclear power station system, communication network system, space systems, chemical plant system and the financial system and so on. Under the situation of the large-scale complex system, the complex task, frequent human-computer interaction, big time pressure and heavy cognitive loading are all putting forward very high requirements on operators. Mental models, which means the mental performance which helps individuals understand the system function, predict the state of the system ,always used by the operators to understand the connections between events , make quick judgment and decision on the current situation, predict and infere the future of the system state, thus make right decided to take action and control the execution of action, finally achieving the system operation maintenance and response to treatment.At the same time, because of the large-scale complex system itself and its increasingly complex man-machine interactive system, individual is not competent for the task requirements, the team has already replaced the individual as the basic unit of the mission. Operators need to work as a team member, communication, cooperation and coordination with other members .Team cognitive studies have indicated that in the complex system operator, the more similar mental models are, the better is the system control efficiency and security performance .It is significance to explore how to improve the operator mental model similarity theory and practice.The most current study, however, focuses on how to improve the efficiency of team work and team mental model similarity performance, relatively few studies explore the influence factors of mental model similarity performance. In view of this, this study in order to manipulate employees engaged in large-scale complex systems as object, explore the manipulation of the influence factors of mental model similarity. This study is an object with 54 operators in the system, aims to explore the factors of affecting their mental model similarity. Because the operators form a social network, so this article uses social network analysis program UCINET data for analysis. The results show that:(1)The more similar operators work experience and professional background between each other, the higher their mental model similarity are;(2)The work of high pressure situation interaction frequency and its mental model similarity is just the opposite.The most outstanding contribution to the theory of this study is to use the team the theoretical framework of cognitive and social network analysis, finally revealing the influence factors of similarity operator mental models.Team is a complicated and changeable situation, personnel restructuring is a common internal environment change. In addition, in the practical work, interaction often go beyond the limitations of team boundary, extensive interaction with other employees. Therefore, all employees of organization form the potential of the social network. Social network analysis method breakthrough the limitation of team boundary, improve the ecological validity of the study. The results of the study also have enlightenment and significance reference on how to improve the employees' mental model similarity management practices.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/20622
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王巍. 复杂系统操纵员心智模型相似性的影响因素[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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