PSYCH OpenIR  > 社会与工程心理学研究室
职业生涯管理的结构及其关系研究
其他题名The Research on Structural Models of Career Management In China
龙立荣
学位类型博士
导师方俐洛
2001-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词职业生涯 组织职业生涯管理 自我职业生涯管理
摘要

    随着改革的不断深入、我国加入W`1'0的日益临近,企业竞争的全球化成为必然。而以“快鱼吃慢鱼”为特征的知识经济,使得企业组织的稳定性急剧下降,为了应对激烈的竞争,许多组织实施裁员政策;而经营不善的组织则要么被兼并,要么倒闭、破产。在这种情况下,组织如何适应新的经济形势开展职业生涯管理?开展职业生涯管理有何效果?员工如何开展职业生涯管理?员工的自我职业生涯管理有何效果?组织职业生涯管理对员工自我职业生涯管理有何影响?本研究试图结合我国实际,比较全面地回答上述问题。
    本研究经历了三个阶段:第一阶段,通过访谈、问卷调查、文献研究,确立组织、自我职业生涯管理的结构,并编制问卷;对编制的问卷进行小样本调查,通过对数据的质量分析,确立问卷存在的问题,并做适当的修订;第二阶段,进行较大规模的调查,选取13家企业的管理者、技术人员进行调查,获得了449份有效问卷,通过探索性因素分析,确立问卷的正式项目;此外,从第二阶段起,在调查问卷中加入了与职业生涯管理相关变量的问卷,效果性变量如组织承诺等;影响自我职业生涯管理的心理因素变量如一般自我效能、超越动机等;第三阶段,利用正式问卷,重新取样调查,对11家企业的管理者、技术人员进行了调查,获得399份有效问卷,以验证自我职业生涯管理的结构及其与相关变量之间的关系。
    探索性因素分析结果表明:组织职业生涯管理是一个四因素的结构,分别由公平晋升、注重培训、促进职业发展和提供职业空缺信息构成;经过验证性因素分析,结果表明:组织职业生涯管理的四因素构想比单因素、两因素更优;此外,组织职业生涯管理对效果性变量如组织承诺、职业承诺、职业满意度、工作绩效等均有积极的影响;对自我职业生涯管理也有显著的影响。对组织职业生涯管理的信度和效度考察结果表明:该问卷具有较高的同质信度,较好的构想效度和实证效度。
    探索性因素分析结果表明:自我职业生涯管理是一个五因素的构想,分别由职业探索、职业目标和策略确定、继续学习、自我展示和注重关系构成;验证性因素分析结果表明:自我职业生涯管理的五因素并列结构模型优于有层级的因果模型,显示出自我职业生涯管理各要素之间是并列关系,而不是因果关系;进一步验证性因素分析结果表明:相对于单因素、两因素、三因素、四因素构想,五因素构想与数据拟合更好。自我职业生涯管理对组织承诺、职业满意度、职业承诺有显著的积极影响;此外,对自我职业生涯管理的信度和效度进行的研究结果表明:该问卷具有一定的信度和效度。
    对影响自我职业生涯管理的因素研究结果表明:组织职业生涯管理作为自我职业生涯管理的外部环境、一般自我效能、超越动机、掌握动机等作为自我职业生涯管理的内部心理因素,对自我职业生涯管理产生积极的影响。此外,人口学变量如年龄、性别、学历、工作岗位等分别对自我职业生涯管理的不同成分产生影响。

其他摘要

    As the social context, cultural background, and economic development standard in China are quite different from those western countries, career management in China will be a very interesting and informative research topic. Do both organizational career management and individual career management have the similar components in China as in other countries? Do they both have the similar effect on the employees' feeling and behavior in organizations? This research was designed to answer these kinds of questions.
    In detail, the dimensions of organizational career management and individual career  management  were  separately  identified  by  in-depth  interview,  open questionnaire, and structural questionnaire first; then, some data from different kinds of companies were collected to find out the construct of career management components; finally their conceptual adaptability was confirmed by the use of the career management questionnaires. In addition, this study tries to decide the effect of the organizational career management on individual career management, the effect of the organizational career management on consequence variables, the effect of the individual career management on consequence variables, and the effect of independent variables on the individual career management.
    The process of this research was divided into three stages. At stage  1, organizational career management and individual career management were identified by the in-depth interview, open questionnaire, and literature review After then, a pilot study was implemented using 177 subjects both to test the quality of questionnaire items and to find out the problems while investigating. At stage 2, revised career management questionnaires from stage 1 were implemented in 13 different companies, and 449 valid questionnaires were collected. At stage 3, final questionnaires from stage 2 were completed in 11 companies and 399 valid questionnaires collected.
    Four-component construct of organizational career management was confirmed by the analysis of 449 subjects from stage 2 using the exploratory factor analysis (i.e. EFA), principal component extraction, and varimax rotation first. The four dimensions were named as fair promotion, training, career development, and information spread. Then the four-component construct was confirmed the best one compared with one-component model, and two-component model by the analysis of 399 subjects using confirmatory factor analysis (i.e. CFA). In addition, the results also indicated that the organizational career management (i.e. OCM) questionnaire had high reliability and validity. Finally, the results indicated that OCM had significant positive effect on consequence variables, which included career commitment, organizational commitment, career satisfaction, and self-rating performance.
    Five-component construct of individual career management (i.e. ICM) was determined by the analysis of 449 subjects from stage 2 using the EFA, principal component extraction, and varimax rotation. The five dimensions were named as exploration, career goal setting and strategy identification, continuous learning, self-nomination, and interpersonal relationship orientation. Then, the results indicated that the fve parallel component construct was confirmed the best one compared with different kinds of hierarchical five-component model by the analysis of 399 subjects using CFA, and that the five-component construct had best fit index in one-component model, two-component model, three-component model, and four-component model. The study also found that the ICM questionnaire had high reliability and validity.
  ICM had significant positive erect on consequence variables, i.e., organizational commitment, and career satisfaction. Not only did OCM but also general self-efficacy, mastery motivation, and performance motivation have positive erects on individual career management.

学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21269
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
龙立荣. 职业生涯管理的结构及其关系研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2001.
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