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权力感影响风险决策的心理机制:奖赏趋近还是风险忽视?
其他题名Reward-Approaching or Risk-Negligence?the Psychological Mechanism behind the Effect of Sense of Power on Risky Decision Making
李小舒
学位类型硕士
导师李岩梅
2017-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词权力感 风险决策 趋近奖赏 忽视风险
摘要

权力是社会生活中重要的的概念,有权者的决策往往对他人或社会带来重要影响。权力感,即感知到控制资源与影响他人的心理体验,已被证实对风险决策存在正性影响。但是少有研究说明,这一影响是由于有权者更趋近奖赏,还是更忽视风险。本文以权力的趋近理论作为解释框架,采用决策、社会心理学的研究范式,通过两个研究,同时验证个体对奖赏与风险的关注在权力感与风险决策关系中的作用。
研究一采用在线实验的方法,初步探讨权力感对经济领域风险决策的影响,以及趋近奖赏与回避风险动机在其中发挥的作用。研究通过角色扮演对权力感进行诱发,随后进行金钱赌博游戏,测量不同水平的权力感对风险决策的影响。同时,通过主观报告的方法,测量被试在风险决策任务中对趋近奖赏与回避风险的动机。结果发现,权力感通过趋近奖赏动机间接影响了风险决策,即权力感提升了个体趋近奖赏的动机,因而在金钱赌博游戏中更倾向于选择具有高奖赏的风险项。这一结果证实了趋近奖赏动机的中介作用。
研究二将权力感对风险决策的影响扩展到社会领域的风险决策。研究首先通过两个预实验,确定可用于正式研究的经济决策与社会决策的范式。正式研究中,被试在进行权力感的诱发后,首先完成社会领域风险情境问卷,然后进行经济领域的金钱赌博游戏,分别作为社会领域与经济领域风险决策的指标。同时,在对奖赏/风险的关注方面,除了测量被试趋近奖赏/回避风险的动机,也测量了被试对于潜在奖赏/风险的知觉。结果一致表明,权力感提高了个体趋近奖赏的倾向,从而表现出对具有高奖赏的风险项偏好。其中,在经济决策领域,趋近奖赏动机与奖赏知觉分别中介了权力感与风险决策的关系;在社会决策领域,奖赏知觉中介了权力感和社会性风险偏好的关系,趋近奖赏动机中介了权力感和与他人利益相关的风险偏好的关系。而对风险的忽视不是权力感与风险决策的中介变量。总之,本研究通过考察个体在不同领域的风险决策,表明对奖赏的趋近,而非对风险的忽视,是权力感对风险决策影响的心理机制。这为理解有权者的认知、行为特点提供了理论基础与实证依据。

其他摘要

Power is an important concept in social life, and the decisions made by those with power are likely to influence others and the society significantly. Sense of power, defined as psychological experience of the ability to control resources and modify others’ states, has been proved to have positive influence on risky decision-making. Yet few researches have explained whether such influence is caused by a higher approach on the reward or a greater negligence on the risk. Using the approach theory of power as theoretical framework, the current study investigated individual's attention on both reward and risk, as well as their influences on the relation between sense of power and risky decision-making respectively by paradigms of decision-making and social psychology in two studies.
Through online experiment, Study One provided a preliminary investigation on the influence of sense of power on risky decision-making in economic area, as well as the role of reward-approaching and risk-avoiding motivations played. The study manipulated individual's sense of power by role-play game task, followed by a simulated money gambling task, which was to examine the influence on risky decision-making by different levels of sense of power. At the same time, participant's motivations of rewarding-approaching and risk-avoiding in the risky decision-making process were measured in subjective reports. Results showed that the sense of power indirectly affected risky decision-making through reward-approaching motivation.
Power increased individual's motivation for reward, and leaded to preference for high-risk-high-reward options in the gambling. Study One showed the mediation role of reward-approaching motivation.
Study Two extended the influence of sense of power on risky decision-making to social area. Through two pilot studies, experimental paradigms which could be used in Study Two were identified. In Study Two, participants' sense of power was manipulated, followed by a questionnaire on scenarios of social risks, and then the money gambling game, which used as indexes of risky decision-making in social and economic areas respectively. At the same time, in terms of individual's concern on the reward, their perception on potential reward/risk was also measured besides motivations. Results indicated that sense of power increased individual's approach on reward, then leaded to the preference for high-risk-high-reward options. In particular, both the reward-approaching motivation and the perception on reward mediated the relation between the sense of power and risky decision-making in economic area. In social area, the perception on reward mediated the relation between sense of power and social risk preference, and the reward-approaching motivation mediated the relation between sense of power and risk preference involving others' interests. Nevertheless, negligence on risk is not a mediator in the relation between sense of power and the risky decision-making.
In conclusion, by examining individual's risky decision-making in different areas, this study shows that the psychological mechanism behind the influence of sense of power on risky decision-making is approach on reward, instead of negligence of risk. This finding enriches existing theological framework and empirical literatures on understanding the cognition and behavior of those with power.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21334
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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李小舒. 权力感影响风险决策的心理机制:奖赏趋近还是风险忽视?[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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