PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
金融机构工作人员工作压力、心理状态 与心理灵活性的关系
其他题名The role of Psychological Flexibility in the Relationship of Occupational Stress and Psychological States of Staff Working in Financial Institutions
崔云龙
学位类型硕士
导师祝卓宏
2017-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词心理灵活性 工作压力 心理状态 中介效应
摘要

心理灵活性是接纳承诺疗法(Acceptance and Commitment Therapy,ACT)的核心概念,包含接纳、解离、以己为景、活在当下、明确价值以及承诺行动共六个子过程。现存的心理灵活性测量工具往往受到它们各自特殊情景的限制,要么局限于具体的应用语境,要么只测量了其中的一个子过程。因此,理论上仍然需要继续探索和验证如何才能更全面和准确地测量心理灵活性。本研究在前人的研究基础之上开发测量心理灵活性全貌的新工具,探索该测量工具的因素结构并检验其信效度,以期国内为测量心理灵活性全貌或 ACT的研究提供指标良好的工具。此外,心理灵活性在多种重要的治疗效果中起到中介作用,并且较高的心理灵活性与心理痛苦和生活质量的改善密切相关。本研究将进一步探索心理灵活性在工作压力情景下对各心理状态指标产生的作用,以期为心理灵活性能够作为功能性的跨诊断因素提供初步证据。最后,本研究还将探索接纳承诺疗法在金融工作人员中对心理灵活性的干预效果。
本研究分为三个子研究。研究 1 是心理灵活性问卷在金融工作人员中的信效度分析。 整群选取某金融机构全部层级单位工作人员作为本研究被试,回收有效问卷 3735 份。用选择 SPSS22.0 和 AMOS21.0 进行数据处理和统计分析。剔除极端值后,将全部个案随机分为两组。用主成分分析法对其中一组数据(n=1873)进行探索性因素分析,用极大似然法对另一组数据(n=1825)进行验证性因素分析。采用Pearson相关来分析CompACT量表的效标效度和聚合效度,用层次回归分析检验该量表的递增效度。研究2 是金融工作人员的工作压力、心理状态与心理灵活性的关系。对研究 1的样本加测《工作压力源问卷》、《职业倦怠量表通用版》、《工作满意度量表》 、 《生活满意度量表》和《心理资本问卷》 。使用SPSS22.0 对各变量进行描述性统计、积差相关和差异分析。使用 AMOS21.0对假设的混合路径分析模型进行拟合度检验,并以偏差校正的非参数百分位Bootstrap 方法估计心理灵活性中介效应。研究 3 是金融机构工作人员的心理灵活性干预试点研究。采取单组前后测实验设计,用《心理灵活性问卷》评估接纳承诺疗法对心理灵活性的干预效果。
研究 1的探索性因素分析萃取出了与理论构想相一致的 3个因子,共 15个条目,累计方差为 73.75%,荷载在[0.67,0.90]。验证性因素分析表明3 因子结构拟合度较好(2/df=5.91,CFI=0.95,TLI=0.98,RMSEA=0.05) 。心理灵活性问卷具有较好的内部一致性(Cronbach a=0.87) ,并且既与效标变量聚合但又有所不同:较高的心理灵活性与较高的心理健康水平、较低的负性情绪相关;控制经验性回避水平后,心理灵活性对焦虑、抑郁和压力的解释力仍然具有统计学意义。在研究2中,该金融机构工作人员的工作压力、心理灵活性和心理状态分别在不同性别、年龄、职位级别和单位级别上表现不同。心理灵活性与职业倦怠、抑郁-焦虑-压力负相关,与心理健康、工作满意度、生活满意度和心理资本正相关,相关系数绝对值介于 0.26 至 0.66。混合路径分析模型结果显示,工作压力能够通过心理灵活性影响该样本人群的各方面心理状态,其中包括职业倦怠、抑郁-焦虑-压力、心理健康、工作和生活满意度以及心理资本。心理灵活性在工作压力与各因变量之间的中介效应值介于 0.20 至 0.51。在研究 3 中,该人群样本的心理灵活性总分以及价值和承诺行动过程得分在培训后高于培训前的得分,差异具有统计学意义。
本研究可以得出如下结论:
第一,  心理灵活性问卷(CompACT)中文版具有较为合理的三因素结构,在金融机构工作人员中的信效度良好。为中国背景下进行心理灵活性或 ACT 的相关研究提供了有效的测量工具。
第二,  该样本的女性、市(地、州)级单位或处于领导职位的员工,工作压力相对较小,其职业心理状态相对较好。35-50 岁的受调查者与其他年龄段相比工作压力最大,职业心理状态也较差。
第三,  心理灵活性与工作压力、职业倦怠、不良情绪和心理健康水平成负相关,与工作和生活满意度以及心理资本成正相关。
第四,  工作压力不仅可以直对该群体的心理状态(如职业倦怠、抑郁-焦虑-压力、心理健康、工作和生活满意度以及心理资本)产生不利影响,还能通过心理灵活性的中介作用对这些心理状态指标产生消极作用。这极有可能意味着工作压力通过削弱个体的心理灵活性引发个体产生职业倦怠,增加不良情绪,降低心理健康水平以及工作和生活满意度,同时打击个体的积极心态。
第五,  心理灵活性可以成为职业心理健康方面的功能性跨诊断因素之一。 
第六,  接纳承诺疗法能够改善金融机构工作人员的心理灵活性水平。

其他摘要

Within Acceptance and Commitment Therapy(ACT),pychological  fexibility is conceptualized as a product of six distinct but interrelated sub-processes: acceptance; defusion; self as context; being present; valuing; and committed action. Extant ACT process measures are are typically circumscribed in their focus, and limited to particular theoretical sub-processes or contexts of application. Therefore, Conceptual questions therefore remain regarding how best to operationalize and measure core ACT processes. First of all, we describe the development of a new  comprehensive measure of ACT processes (the CompACT) and explore the measure’s factor structure, validity and reliability  and so  as to  provide a stable and psychometrically sound instrument in studies of experiential avoidance, psychological flexibility and ACT in China. Consistent with ACT theory, psychological flexibility has been found to mediate important therapeutic outcomes, with higher levels of psychological flexibility being associated with lower levels of psychological distress and improved quality of life. In order  to  provide evidence that  psychological flexibility  can serve as a functional diagnostic dimension, which is beneficial tothe treatment, then the study is to further explore the effect of psychological flexibility on indicators of pychological status with job stress in work place. In the end, this study investigate whether ACT can improve the psychological flexibility among staff working in financial institutions.
This study is composed of three sub-studies.Study 1 is reliability and validity of CompACT in staff working in financial institution. In total, candidates were collected from stuff working in financial institutions, and 3735 valid questionnaires were obtained.  SPSS22.0  and AMOS21.0  were  applied  to  analyze  the  data.  Extremes elimination was applied  before  dividing  all  cases  into two groups randomly.  One group(n=1873)  was conducted  exploratory factor analysis(EFA)  with  principal components analysis(PCA),  another  group(n=1845)  was  conducted confirmatory factor analysis(CFA) with maximum likelihood. Criterion and convergent validity were tested by pearson correlation  respectively.  Incremental validity  was  tested by hierarchical regression.  Study  2  is about  the role of psychological flexibility in relationship of occupational stress and psychological states of staff working in financial institutions.  Sample of study 1 were measured  additonally  with  Job  Stressor Questionaire,Maslach  Burnout Inventory-General Survey,  Job Satisfaction Index, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Psychological Capital Questionare.Spss version 22.0 was used for conducting descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation. AMOS version 21.0 was uesd for testing the fits of mixed path analysis model, before bias-corrected nonparametric percentile bootstrap method was conducted for test the mediating effect of psychological flexibility. Study  3  is a  plot  study  of  invention for psychological flexibility. Participants were assessed at pretest, posttest using the CompACT within one-group pretest-posttest design.
In study 1, an EFA suggested a theoretically-coherent three-factor structure for a 15-itemed version of the CompACT. Three-factor solution explained 73.75% of the total variance, and factor loadings ranged between 0.67 to 0.90. An CFA confirmed the hypothesized three-factor mode (2/df=5.91,CFI=0.95,TLI=0.98,RMSEA=0.05). The CompACT demonstrated good internal consistency(Cronbach  a=0.87), and converged and diverged in theory-consistent ways with other measured variables: higher levels of psychological flexibility were associated with higher levels of mental health and lower levels of distress. The CompACT also showed incremental validity beyond AAQ-Ⅱ  in explaining depression, anxiety and stress.In Study 2,  the working stress, psychological flexibility and mental state of the staff working  in  the financial institutions  were  different at gender, age, job  position  level and  institution  level respectively. Levels of Psychological flexibility were significantly positive with levels of mental health, job satisfaction, life satisfaction and  psychological capital, and significantly negative with  levels of  occupational burnout and  depression-anxiety- stress.  The absolute value of all correlation coefficients  between psychological flexibility with  them  ranged  from  0.26  to  0.66.  An  mixed path analysis model demonstrated  that  psychological flexibility mediated  the  relationship between occupational  stress  among occupational burnout, depression-anxiety-stress,  mental health, satisfaction and psychological capital. The mediating effect varied from 0.20 to 0.51. In Study 3, Participants who had took part in the ACT training showed significant improvement in psychological flexibility.
The conclusions are as follows:
i.   First, the Chinese version of CompACT  has acceptable psychometric properties in  financial practitioner. CompACT can be applied in studies of psychological flexibility and ACT in China.
ii.   In  these  financial  institutution,  the sample of women, municipal degree institutions  or  leading positions  of the work pressure is relatively  lower than other respectively, and the psychological state is relatively well also. Comparing with other age groups, 35-50 year-old respondents has maximum pressure, and mental state is also poorer.
iii.   Psychological flexibility were  significantly  positive with  levels  of mental health, job satisfaction, life satisfaction and  psychological capital, and  significantly negative with occupational burnout and depression-anxiety-stress.
iv.   Not only can job stress affects psychological states,but also influences them via psychological flexibility.
v.   Psychological flexibility can serve as a functional diagnostic dimension for occupational mental health.
vi.   Acceptance  and  commitment therapy can improve the psychological
flexibility of financial institution staff.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21384
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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崔云龙. 金融机构工作人员工作压力、心理状态 与心理灵活性的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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