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执行意向对慢性精神分裂症患者不同类型前瞻记忆的促进效应
其他题名The effect of implementation intention on different types of prospective memory in chronic patients with schizophrenia
刘露露
学位类型硕士
导师王亚
2017-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业认知神经科学
关键词执行意向 精神分裂症 基于非聚焦性事件的前瞻记忆 基于时间的前瞻记忆
摘要

前瞻记忆是指对未来某一时刻将要完成某项或某些意向活动的记忆,可以根据线索的特性具体分为基于事件(包括聚焦性事件和非聚焦性事件)和基于时间的前瞻记忆。作为认知功能的一个重要部分,前瞻记忆在人们的日常生活中起着重要作用。精神分裂症是一种重性精神疾病,研究显示精神分裂症患者不同类型的前瞻记忆均存在缺损。前瞻记忆缺损和精神分裂症患者的社会功能障碍显著相关。改善精神分裂症患者的前瞻记忆能力可能会极大促进其有效的自我管理,对其独立生活也有重要意义。因此本课题拟探讨改善精神分裂症患者前瞻记忆的方法。执行意向是一种  “如果…,那么…”形式的自我管理策略,能够帮助个体完成目标行为。已有研究表明执行意向能够促进精神分裂症患者基于聚焦性事件的前瞻记忆表现,但目前还没有对基于非聚焦性事件和基于时间的前瞻记忆的探讨。那么执行意向是否对基于非聚焦性事件和基于时间的前瞻记忆同样有促进作用,作用的具体认知机制怎样,这些都需要我们通过实验进行考察。
本论文包括两个研究。研究一旨在探讨执行意向是否能够改善精神分裂症患者基于非聚焦性事件前瞻记忆的表现,以及其作用机制如何。研究二旨在探讨执行意向对精神分裂症患者基于时间的前瞻记忆是否存在促进效应,及其作用的认知机制。共42 名精神分裂症患者和 42 名健康被试参加了本研究,两组被试又各自被随机分配到执行意向组和标准前瞻记忆组,所有被试都完成基于非聚焦性事件的前瞻记忆任务和基于时间的前瞻记忆任务。
研究一结果表明执行意向能够有效促进精神分裂症患者基于非聚焦性事件的前瞻记忆表现,其进行中任务表现不受到影响,说明这种促进效应是相对自动的过程。执行意向可能增加了患者对前瞻记忆任务内容的编码,使患者能够在任务中更容易地觉察前瞻记忆目标词,增加线索目标词与意向行为之间的联系,从而更容易完成前瞻记忆任务。
研究二结果显示执行意向能够显著改善精神分裂症患者基于时间前瞻记忆的表现,同样不伴随进行中任务表现变差,因此执行意向对患者前瞻记忆的改善是自动化加工的过程。另外执行意向显著增加被试的时间检查行为,时间检查频数与前瞻记忆表现显著正相关,且时间检查行为在执行意向与基于时间前瞻记忆任务表现的关系中起部分中介作用。
本研究发现执行意向对不同类型的前瞻记忆均有促进效应, 关于执行意向对不同类型前瞻记忆的促进效应和机制的探讨具有理论意义; 并将执行意向应用于精神分裂症患者,发现执行意向对其前瞻记忆的表现具有稳定的促进效应,具有一定的临床意义。

其他摘要

Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to execute a planned intention in a future time, which can be divided into event-based PM (including focal and non-focal) and time-based PM according to the nature of the cue. As a part of cognitive functions, PM plays an important role in daily life. Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disease. Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in different types of PM. PM impairments play an important role in social dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. Improving PM performance in patients with schizophrenia would promote their self-regulation and can also help them make an independent living. Thus we  aimed  to investigate  ways  to  improve  PM  performances  in patients with schizophrenia  in  this thesis.  Implementation  intention is an encoding strategy  in the format of “if …, then …”, which can help people to complete their intented behavior. Focal event-based PM in patients with schizophrenia has been found to be benefited from implementation intention. However,  no studies have  examined  the effect of implementation intention on non-focal event-based and time-based PM performance in schizophrenia. The present studies aimed to examine these issues.
There are two studies in this thesis. Study one applied implementation intention in patients with schizophrenia to examine whether it can improve their non-focal event-based PM performance and its underlying mechanisms. Study two examined whether implementation intention had  beneficial effect on time-based PM performance  in patients with schizophrenia and its underlying mechanisms. We recruited 42 patients with schizophrenia and 42 healthy participants in  the  studies. The two groups  of participants were randomly assigned to implementation intention group and standard PM group respectively.  All participants  completed both  non-focal event-based and time-based PM tasks.
Study one showed that implementation intention can significantly improve non-focal event-based PM performance in patients with  schizophrenia, with no cost on ongoing task performance. This means the  effect of implementation intention  is an automatic process.  Implementation intention makes  participants  encode  PM task requirements better, detect the PM cues during the task more easily, and  increase the connection between PM cues and PM intention,  thus participants completed PM task better in the implementation intention condition.
Study two demonstrated that implementation intention also had positive effect on time-based PM performance in patients with schizophrenia, with no cost of ongoing task performance. Thus  implementation intention improves patients’ time-based PM performance through a more automatic process. Moreover, implementation intention significantly increased  participants’ clock checking  frequency, which was positively related to their PM performance. Clock checking frequency played a partial mediating role in the relationship between implementation intention and PM performance.
Our studies showed the beneficial effect of implementation intention on different types of PM, the examination of facilitating effect and mechanisms of implementation intention on different  types of  PM  have  significant theoretical implications. The application of  implementation intention in patients with schizophrenia and  the facilitation effect on their different types of PM performances have clinical significance.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21410
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘露露. 执行意向对慢性精神分裂症患者不同类型前瞻记忆的促进效应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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