PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
城乡空巢老人心理健康状况及其影响因素的模型建构
其他题名The structural equation model of mental health and its influencing factors of empty nest elderly in urban town and rural areas
肖巧玲
学位类型硕士
导师李娟
2017-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词空巢老人 心理健康 影响因素 城乡差异 结构方程模型 中介效应和调节效应
摘要

目的:我国老年人群的空巢比例不断上升,并将成为未来主要的家庭生活模式,空巢老人心理健康问题是近年来老年学领域研究关注的焦点。但是,国内外关于空巢老人心理健康状况的研究结论并不一致,而且城市、乡镇和农村之间、不同类型的空巢老人之间可能存在很大差异。 已有的关于空巢老人的心理健康的研究都局限于对社会人口学变量的描述和各因素的单独效应的对比,关于不同因素对空巢老人心理健康综合影响的研究却比较少,难以更全面和真实反映空巢老人心理健康影响因素的相互作用。因此,本研究的目的是全面分析空巢老人心理健康的状况及其城乡差异,对比不同类型空巢老人心理健康的差异,探讨空巢老人心理健康的影响因素及其相互作用并构建理论模型以期为将来的实践工作提供理论指导。
方法:采用结构化问卷对北京、湖北、安徽三个地区 60 岁以上常住老人进行调查,然后通过 SPSS24.0 建立数据库并进行独立样本 t 检验、单因素方差分析,卡方检验、协方差分析、相关分析和标准化线性回归分析,最后通过Mplus7.0 建立结构方程模型。
结果:空巢是老年人尤其是农村老年人心理健康的不利因素,但是空巢对城市和乡镇老年人的不利影响较小,而对于农村老人影响较大,表现为农村空巢老人的孤独感更高,心理健康水平较差。 “主动空巢”的老人有着更高的生活满意度和良好的自我。但是, “绝对空巢”老人表现出明显的孤独感、较低的生活满意度和较差的心理健康水平。社会经济状况、生活方式、身体健康状况、社会支持四类因素共同预测了空巢老人心理健康。其中,社会支持是社会经济状况和生活方式与空巢老人心理健康的中介变量,同时,社会支持水平调节了社会
经济状况与心理健康之间的关系。社会经济状况和社会支持对城市空巢老人的心理健康有着重要的促进作用,而社会经济状况、生活方式和社会支持是乡镇空巢老人心理健康的直接预测变量,社会经济状况和身体健康状况是农村老人心理健康的直接影响因素,但是社会支持水平的提高可以减少农村老人对社会经济状况的依赖。
结论:空巢是心理健康的不利因素,但是对城市和乡镇老人影响较小,对农村老人影响较大。“主动空巢”和“相对空巢”是较为理想的空巢类型。社会经济状况、生活方式、身体健康状况、社会支持是影响空巢老人的重要因素,其中社会经济状况和生活方式还会通过社会支持的中介作用间接影响到心理健康水平,社会支持水平调节了社会经济状况与心理健康之间的关系。城市、乡镇和农村空巢老人心理健康各影响因素的相互作用模式存在差异。

其他摘要

Objective: The proportion of empty nest in the elderly population of our country will continue to rise, and become the main mode of family life. And mental health of the empty nest elderly  is  the  focus of research in the field of gerontology. However, the conclusion of the research on the mental health level of the empty nest elderly is not consistent, and differences may exist among urban, town and rural areas and between different types of empty nesters. Studies on factors that affect mental health of empty nest elderly mental health are confined to the description of the demographic variables and the single effect of various factors, and there should be more comprehensive studies to  reflect their  interaction effect on  psychological health of the  empty nest  elderly. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore comprehensively the state of mental health of the empty nest elderly  and  the difference between urban and rural areas, comparing the differences  of mental health  between different types of  empty  nest elderly, factors affect the empty nest elderly’ mental health and their interaction and explore  different mode  between urban, town and  rural areas  in order to provide theoretical guidance for future practice.
Methods: We used structured questionnaires to survey residents aged above 60 years old  in three areas of Beijing, Hubei, Anhui, and then we built database  through the SPSS24.0 and analyze the data using independent samples t test, one-way ANOVA, chi square test, analysis of covariance, correlation analysis and standard linear regression analysis, and finally construct structural equation model through the Mplus7.0.
Results: The empty nest elderly have lower level of mental health especially the empty nest of the  rural areas, but the adverse effects of the empty nest on  the city and the township of the elderly is smaller, for empty nest elderly in rural areas, their loneliness is higher and mental health is poorer. The "active empty nest elderly" had higher life satisfaction and better self. However, the  "  absolute empty nest elderly"  showed a significant sense of loneliness, lower life satisfaction and poor mental health level. Social economic status, lifestyle, health status, social support are  factors  that predict  the mental health of empty nest elderly. Among them, social support  is a mediating variable between social economic condition and life style on the mental health of the empty nest elderly. The social and economic status and social support played  an important role in promoting mental health of the city empty nester, and social economic status, lifestyle and social support is the direct predictive variables of township empty nester’s mental health, socioeconomic status and physical health factors directly affect the mental health of the rural elderly, but raising the level of social support the elderly in rural areas can reduce the dependence on the social economic situation.
Conclusion: Being empty nest is not good for old people’s mental health, but it has less adverse effect on the elderly in urban and town areas. "Active empty nest " and "relative empty nest" are the ideal types of empty nest. The social and economic status, life style, health status, social support is an important factor affecting Empty Nester, including socioeconomic status and lifestyle through the mediating role of social support indirectly affect the level of mental health, and social support moderate the relationship between economic status and mental health of society. There are differences  in  the factors affect mental health of empty nest elderly among urban, town and rural areas .

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21420
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
肖巧玲. 城乡空巢老人心理健康状况及其影响因素的模型建构[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2017.
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