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正念对个体创造力的影响及其作用机制
其他题名The Influence of Mindfulness on the Individual Creativity and Relevant Mechanism
伊丽奇
学位类型硕士
导师王詠
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理
关键词特质性正念 状态性正念 创造力 认知灵活性 情绪
摘要

近年来,无论从研究还是实践的角度的积极作用,例如保持对任务的专注程度,正念都受到越来越多的关注。正念、习得转换视角的能力,以及抑制无关想法和情绪的干扰作用等,都是发挥创造力不可或缺的动力。
通过回顾和总结前人的研究,我们发现大多数研究结果证明,正念与创造力存在正相关,然而也有一些研究提出了不同看法。面对正念对创造力影响模棱两可的结果,有学者认为是由于正念是一个含有不同成分的复杂概念,且不同研究采用的正念冥想类型不同。我们认为除以上原因外,不同研究采用不同创造力测量方法也是造成正念和创造力关系不一致的原因之一。此外,随着对正念和创造力关系研究的深入,国外学者们开始对正念和创造力之间关系的影响因素越来越感兴趣,但国内鲜见类似研究。本文希望在确定正念和创造力关系的基础上,进一步梳理认知灵活性和情绪在正念和创造力关系上的作用机制。
  本研究第一部分采用问卷研究,探讨特质性正念与个体创造行为之间的关系,及认知灵活性和情绪在其中的作用机制。研究一选取了十一个组织中的员工作为被试,采用Bootstrap方法分析了正念与创造行为及其他变量之间的关系,结果显示认知灵活性在正念和创造行为之间起完全中介作用,情绪的调节作用不显著。第二部分采用实验研究,考察状态性正念是否能够通过提升被试的认知灵活性,从而使其在创造力任务中表现更佳,及情绪在其中的作用机制。研究二的先导实验通过躯体扫描录音启动被试的正念状态,并采用三种不同的创造力任务来确定正念与创造力的直接关系,及不同创造力任务之间存在的差异。在先导实验的基础上,正式实验采用颜色一形状转换任务测量被试认知灵活性,并且通过Bootstrap方法验证有调节的中介作用模型。结果显示认知灵活性在状态性正念与创造力任务表现之间起中介作用,且情绪中的愉悦度和控制度与正念的交互作用显著。
本研究补充了正念与创造力之间关系的研究成果,梳理了认知与情绪在其中的作用机制。在实践上,提供了正念训练提升个体创造力水平的可能性。

其他摘要

In recent years, the concept of mindfulness has been capturing more attention in the fields of research and practice. The mindfulness has a variety of positive functions,such as maintaining the focus on the current task, acquiring the ability to think from another angle as well as controlling the irrelevant thoughts and disturbing emotions. Hence, it can play a key role in realizing the creativity.
After reviewing and summarizing the previous researches, we have found that most of them can prove the positive relationship between mindfulness and creativity. But there are also some different views on this topic. In other words, the effect of mindfulness on creativity has not been determined. Some scholars believe that mindfulness is a complicated concept with different components. Moreover, different categories of mindfulness meditation have been adopted in different researches.
Besides those factors, we also believe that the difference in the method of measuring the creativity is another reason for the disagreement on the relationship between mindfulness and creativity. With the deepening of the research into the relationship between mindfulness and creativity, many scholars in foreign countries have shown more interest in researching the factors influencing the relationship. However, the similar researches are still quite rare in China. Under this background, this research aims to determine the relationship between mindfulness and creativity. In addition, the mechanism of cognitive flexibility and emotion influencing the relationship between mindfulness and creativity will be also analyzed.
This research consists of two parts. By means of questionnaire, we have discussed the relationship between trait-oriented mindfulness and individual creativity. The mechanism of cognitive flexibility and emotion influencing their relationship will be also analyzed. By choosing some employees in 11 organizations as the subjects, we have adopted Bootstrap method to analyze the relationship between mindfulness, creative behaviors and other variables. It is found that the cognitive flexibility can play the role of complete mediator in the relationship between mindfulness and creative behaviors. Besides, emotions do not have a significant moderating effect on their relationship. The second part is the experimental research. It aims to research whether the stateful mindfulness can enhance the cognitive flexibility of the subjects to improve the performance of creative tasks. The mechanism of emotions influencing it will be also analyzed. In the pilot experiment of the second research, the Mindfulness Body Scan recording is used to initiate manipulate the mindfulness state of the subjects. Three different creative tasks are adopted to determine the direct relationship between mindfulness and creativity as well as the difference in the creative tasks. Based on the pilot experiment, the color-shape conversion task has been utilized in the formal experiment to measure the cognitive flexibility of the subjects. Bootstrap has been used to verify the moderating effect of the model. It is found that the cognitive flexibility will have a mediation effect on the relationship between mindfulness state and the performance of creative task. The degree of pleasure and dominance in the emotion can interact with the mindfulness significantly.
This research has supplemented the previous researches about the relationship between mindfulness and creativity. It has also summarized the mechanism of the cognition and emotion influencing their relationship. From the perspective of practice, it has offered a new possibility for improving the individual creativity through the mindfulness training.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21427
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
伊丽奇. 正念对个体创造力的影响及其作用机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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