PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
支持条件对记忆年龄差异的影响
其他题名The effect of Supports on Age Differences in Memory
罗琳
学位类型硕士
导师韩布新
2001-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业认知心理学
关键词记忆年龄差异 年老化 清节记忆 支持条件
摘要

本研究以认知年老化的加工资源理论为依据,从一记忆的编码过程、编码与主体知识结构的关系以及编码与提取过程间关系三个方面出发,选取涉及编码过程、记忆材料和提取过程的数种支持性条件进行研究,通过三个实验探讨了不同支持条件对记忆年龄差异的影响以及它们之间的相互关系和作用。以对年老化最敏感的情节记忆系统,加工过程中的编码与提取过程为代表,以记忆效果为衡量指标。年龄变量设置条件匹配的青年和老年两个水平。本研究涉及的支持性条件包括:(1)编码时的演练操作;(2)记忆材料中的语义关联,分为项目特异的语义关联和范畴组织关系两种;(3)提取时的线索。主要探讨支持条件对年龄差异的影响和其相互关系,以及老年人的4记忆加工特征。
    本研究的主要结果与结论如下:
    1支持条件对年龄差异的影响 本研究首次从编码过程、记忆材料以及  提取过程间的关系出发,探讨了支持条件对记忆年龄差异的影响。结果显示,任务的支持条件对年龄差异的影响受支持条件的性质、支持条件与老年人编码  特性之间的关系以及不同支持条件之间的相互关系三方面影响。具体而言,支  持条件当以自动的方式生效、符合老年人编码特征或不同支持条件之间有共同  特性时,可以缩小年龄差异。
    2老年人的一记忆加工特征本研究结果支持记忆年老化的加工资源理论对老年人记忆编码特点的观点:即老年人倾向于以较自动化、概括性的方式编码,编码中缺乏具体信息。在任务条件引导对语义信息加工的情况下,老年人也可以在编码时成功应用语义信息。

其他摘要

Empirical findings showed that the age-related decline in memory is most significant in the encoding and retrieval stage of long-term episodic memories (Balota et. Al., 2000). Several proposed explanations interpret it in terms of reduced cognitive resources available for older adults in memory tasks. Cognitive processing can be considered to reflect an interaction between processes that are driven by.external stimulation and those that are initiated from within the organism (Craik, 1986, 1992).Therefore, age differences in'memory can be reduced by applying supportive task conditions that will minimize the demands on cognitive resources and maximizing the contribution of external stimulation or environmental support (Craik, 1986).
  Current study is designed to explore the effects of such cognitive supports on age differences, and their interactions. As Tulving (1983), Nilsson&Craik (1990)suggested, riiemory performance can be best understood with consideration of the type of encoding achieved, the relationship of such encoding to the subject's knowledge structures, and to the retrieval environment (Tulving, 1983, Nilsson& Craik, 1990). In line with these three factors, following supportive conditions were chosen to be studied: enactment during encoding, semantic integration in memory items, presentation and types of retrieval cues. Three experiments were conducted to study the effect of the above three supportive conditions. The purpose of current study was(I)to explore the effects of supp叫s on age differences in memory and their interactions, (2) to infer the characteristics of processing and encoding achieved by older adults. Two age groups participated in the study: groups of younger adults and aged adults. Rate of correctness was used to measure memory performance.
It was demonstrated by the study that,
1. Effects of supports   The effects of supports reflect the interaction between the nature of supportive conditions and type of encoding achieved by older adults, and between different supports. Specifically, the age differences could be reduced if (1)a support was taken into effect in an automatic manner, (2) the support was compatible with type of encoding of older adults, (3) or different compatible support worked together.
2. Characteristdcs of processing of older adults   Results of current study supported the view that older adults tend to encode in a relatively automatic, general manner, with less specific information. Moreover, when the task was explicitly constrained or guided into semantic processing, older adults can also effectively benefit from semantic information.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21675
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
罗琳. 支持条件对记忆年龄差异的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2001.
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