PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
Alternative TitleThe effect of Supports on Age Differences in Memory
Thesis Advisor韩布新
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline认知心理学
Keyword记忆年龄差异 年老化 清节记忆 支持条件

    1支持条件对年龄差异的影响 本研究首次从编码过程、记忆材料以及  提取过程间的关系出发,探讨了支持条件对记忆年龄差异的影响。结果显示,任务的支持条件对年龄差异的影响受支持条件的性质、支持条件与老年人编码  特性之间的关系以及不同支持条件之间的相互关系三方面影响。具体而言,支  持条件当以自动的方式生效、符合老年人编码特征或不同支持条件之间有共同  特性时,可以缩小年龄差异。

Other Abstract

Empirical findings showed that the age-related decline in memory is most significant in the encoding and retrieval stage of long-term episodic memories (Balota et. Al., 2000). Several proposed explanations interpret it in terms of reduced cognitive resources available for older adults in memory tasks. Cognitive processing can be considered to reflect an interaction between processes that are driven by.external stimulation and those that are initiated from within the organism (Craik, 1986, 1992).Therefore, age differences in'memory can be reduced by applying supportive task conditions that will minimize the demands on cognitive resources and maximizing the contribution of external stimulation or environmental support (Craik, 1986).
  Current study is designed to explore the effects of such cognitive supports on age differences, and their interactions. As Tulving (1983), Nilsson&Craik (1990)suggested, riiemory performance can be best understood with consideration of the type of encoding achieved, the relationship of such encoding to the subject's knowledge structures, and to the retrieval environment (Tulving, 1983, Nilsson& Craik, 1990). In line with these three factors, following supportive conditions were chosen to be studied: enactment during encoding, semantic integration in memory items, presentation and types of retrieval cues. Three experiments were conducted to study the effect of the above three supportive conditions. The purpose of current study was(I)to explore the effects of supp叫s on age differences in memory and their interactions, (2) to infer the characteristics of processing and encoding achieved by older adults. Two age groups participated in the study: groups of younger adults and aged adults. Rate of correctness was used to measure memory performance.
It was demonstrated by the study that,
1. Effects of supports   The effects of supports reflect the interaction between the nature of supportive conditions and type of encoding achieved by older adults, and between different supports. Specifically, the age differences could be reduced if (1)a support was taken into effect in an automatic manner, (2) the support was compatible with type of encoding of older adults, (3) or different compatible support worked together.
2. Characteristdcs of processing of older adults   Results of current study supported the view that older adults tend to encode in a relatively automatic, general manner, with less specific information. Moreover, when the task was explicitly constrained or guided into semantic processing, older adults can also effectively benefit from semantic information.

Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
罗琳. 支持条件对记忆年龄差异的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2001.
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