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东西方面孔识别机制的事件相关电位研究
其他题名An event-related potential study on mechanism of eastern and western face recognition
彭小虎
学位类型博士
导师魏景汉 ; 罗跃嘉
2002-04
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业生物心理学
关键词事件相关电位((ERP) 面孔识别 偶极子定位法(DLM) 独立成分分析(ICA) 异族效应
摘要

  本研究运用事件相关电位(Event-related potentials, ERP)、偶极子定位法(Dipole localization method, DLM)、独立成分分析(Independent componentanalysis,工以)等方法,进行了东西方面孔认知的相继记忆效应、新旧效应、颠倒效应、面孔内外特征以及在颗枕部有无N170等系列实验,以研究面孔识别的认知机制。实验结果表明,西方面孔识别的N100波幅小于东方面孔,而P170和LPC (Late positive complex)的波幅大于东方面孔,提示可能被试对西方面孔的自动加工水平较低,而长时记忆中西方面孔原型的缺乏导致其在工作记忆中背景更新比较彻底;西方面孔识别的相继记忆效应小于东方面孔(即能再认和不能再认面孔的ERP差别较小),新旧效应大于东方面孔,有无内外特征及正位颠倒面孔差异波小于东方面孔,提示西方面孔在认知过程中较东方面孔消耗更多的心理资源,为异族面孔容易混淆和难以记忆(异族效应)提供了电生理学证据。本研究发现,N170/P170受种族特征、认知任务等的影响,据此对N170/P170反映稳定的面孔表征和面孔加工的特异性观点提出了不同见解。实验结果表明,种族、性别等视觉直接加工的潜伏期与结构编码的潜伏期重叠,因此本作者认为,N170/P170不仅可以反映Brouce-Young模型中的面孔结构编码,还可以反映视觉直接加工等面孔加工单元;本研究结果表明面孔结构编码和视觉直接加工为并行关系(同时性加工),而不是Brouce-Young模型的串行关系(继时性加工),从而对当前的这一著名模型进行了修正。本研究验证了面孔的特异加工脑区为右侧梭状回,并发现顶叶后部偏右的皮层下结构也可能是一个面孔加工脑区。

其他摘要

A series of experiments on the difference in subsequent memory (DM effect), old-new effect, face invertion effect, internal and external features of face and the meaning of N 170 were conducted with the event-related potentials(ERP) and the methods of dipole localization (DLM) and independent component analysis (ICA),aimed to investigate the mechanism of face recognition. The experimental results showed that western faces produced a smaller N100 and a larger P170 and a larger LPC than eastern faces. These suggested that automatic processing level was lower and context updating in working memory was more downright for absence of face prototype iif"'long memory for western faces than those for eastern faces. Furthermore, the western faces produced a smaller DM effect and a larger old-new effect and a smaller face inv,}rtion effect and a smaller difference wave for internal and external features of face 'than those of the eastern faces. The results illustrated that more resource was distributed to western faces than eastern faces, and thus provided electrophysiological evidence for other race effect. The study found that N 170/P 170 was modulated by face race feature and cognitive task. These results suggested that it was worthy of farther study on whether N170/P170 was delegated a steady facial representation and reflected the specificity of face recognition. The results showed that the latency of structure encoding and direct visual processing were similar. Thus the author considered that N 170/P 170 not only reflected the face encoding but also reflected the direct visual processing. This view of point is different to the classical model of face recognition by Brouce and Young. Consequently, the author made some modifications on Brouce and Young's face recognition model. Moreover, the study validated that the face processing area in brain was right fusiform gyrus and found that right parietal cortex was probably a face specific processing area in the human brain.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21676
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
彭小虎. 东西方面孔识别机制的事件相关电位研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2002.
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