PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
Alternative TitlePlasticiiy of Tocus of Attention of Working Mecmory in the Elderly:Training Gain,Transfer and Maintenance
Thesis Advisor陈天勇
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword工作记忆 注意焦点容量 认知可塑性 近迁移效应 远迁移效应


Other Abstract

    Working'memory (WM) is responsible for simultaneous processing and maintaining closely correlated with executive function and fluid intelligence. In the embedded model of WM proposed by Cowan, Focus of attention (FoA) is the information processing center,which can hold about 4 items. capacity is a key index of one's ability, but this capacity would decline with aging. The scope of focus corresponds to one's capacity, this stu即was designed to explore the plasticity and transferability of this capacity. 33 healthy older adults participated in this study, 17 were randomly assigned to a training group and 16 to a control group. While the training group was arranged to receive 12 cognitive training sessions lasting for one month, three sessions per week, each session lasted for 50 min to 60 min; the control group would attend four lectures, once a week. To assess potential transfer effects and maintenance effect of cognitive training, a battery of cognitive tests were administrated at pretest, posttest (following closely the completion of training), and follow-up test (three months after posttest). Digit running span task was designated as the criterion tasks, measuring the training effect, character running span task (name words), visual working memory task and multi-object tracking (mot) were adopted for adaptive training regime; near transfer task were similar to trained tasks, including character running span task (color words), visual working memory task (target and distracter, T D) and multi-object
tracking-identity tracking (mot-ID).Far transfer tasks included working memory, fluid intelligence, processing speed and episodic memory, which were designed to measure the transferability of cognitive training.
The results demonstrated that:
    1 .The scope of focus is closely correlated with general intelligence and fluid intelligence;
    2. Cognitive training improved the elderly' performance on the   tasks immediately after training compared with the controls, criterion indicating plasticity of the capacity of FoA;
    3 .Improvements on character running span task (color words) and multi-object tracking-identity tracking (mot-ID) indicated near transfer effects to similar tasks;
    4. This training regime did not change the performance on general   intelligence, which means the transfer effect was limited to near transfer;
    5. Training effect and near transfer effect could be maintained for 3 months;
    6. The interplay between one's ability and different experiment tasks was complicated, so the individual difference's effects differed in these tasks.

Subject Area心理学
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李旭. 老年工作记忆注意焦点容量的可塑性:训练获益、迁移和保持[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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