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老年工作记忆注意焦点容量的可塑性:训练获益、迁移和保持
其他题名Plasticiiy of Tocus of Attention of Working Mecmory in the Elderly:Training Gain,Transfer and Maintenance
李旭
学位类型硕士
导师陈天勇
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词工作记忆 注意焦点容量 认知可塑性 近迁移效应 远迁移效应
摘要

    工作记忆是对信息的同时性存储和加工,研究表明工作记忆与执行功能、液态智力等高级认知功能关系密切。Cowan提出了内嵌式的工作记忆模型,其中注意焦点为信息加工的中心,仅能容量4个项目左右。本研究关注工作记忆中注意焦点容量的可塑性,以及这种训练的获益能否迁移到其他认知能力上去。招募60岁以上健康老年人共33人,随机分成两组,训练组参加为期一个月、十二次(每次50分钟一60分钟,每周三次)的工作记忆训练,另外一组被试(即控制组)参加四次讲座(每周一次,共四周),并在三个月后进行追踪测试。本研究选取汉字动态工作记忆(姓氏字)、视觉工作记忆和多目标追踪作为训练任务;并采用适应性的训练方式在每个训练任务下设置了主难度和次级难度,选取数字动态记忆作为标准任务来测量个体在每次训练中的获益。在近迁移任务的设置上,针对三个训练任务分别设置了相应的迁移任务,为汉字动勘己忆(颜色字)、视觉工作记忆一干扰条件和多目标一身份追踪;在远迁移任务的选择上,选取了代表一般智力的四个方面,即工作记忆、液态智力(图形推理与视空间能力)、加工速度和情景记忆四个能力维度。
本研究的主要结论如下:
    1注意焦点与一般智力和液态智力关系密切;
    2训练组在注意焦点容量训练任务上的成绩有明显提高,说明老年人的注意焦点容量具有可塑性;
    3在近迁移任务上训练组的提高显著高于控制组,表明存在近迁移效应;
    4在工作记忆、液态智力、加工速度与情景记忆四个维度上均未发现远迁移效应,表明注意焦点容量的训练未能显著改善个体在一般智力任务上的表现;
    5在标准任务(数字动态记忆)和近迁移任务上的训练获益能够保持3个月;并且训练组在对称广度任务上在追踪测试时的获益高于控制组:
    6个体差异的影响,表现为个体能力和任务的双重作用。

其他摘要

    Working'memory (WM) is responsible for simultaneous processing and maintaining information.is closely correlated with executive function and fluid intelligence. In the embedded model of WM proposed by Cowan, Focus of attention (FoA) is the information processing center,which can hold about 4 items. capacity is a key index of one's ability, but this capacity would decline with aging. The scope of focus corresponds to one's capacity, this stu即was designed to explore the plasticity and transferability of this capacity. 33 healthy older adults participated in this study, 17 were randomly assigned to a training group and 16 to a control group. While the training group was arranged to receive 12 cognitive training sessions lasting for one month, three sessions per week, each session lasted for 50 min to 60 min; the control group would attend four lectures, once a week. To assess potential transfer effects and maintenance effect of cognitive training, a battery of cognitive tests were administrated at pretest, posttest (following closely the completion of training), and follow-up test (three months after posttest). Digit running span task was designated as the criterion tasks, measuring the training effect, character running span task (name words), visual working memory task and multi-object tracking (mot) were adopted for adaptive training regime; near transfer task were similar to trained tasks, including character running span task (color words), visual working memory task (target and distracter, T D) and multi-object
tracking-identity tracking (mot-ID).Far transfer tasks included working memory, fluid intelligence, processing speed and episodic memory, which were designed to measure the transferability of cognitive training.
The results demonstrated that:
    1 .The scope of focus is closely correlated with general intelligence and fluid intelligence;
    2. Cognitive training improved the elderly' performance on the   tasks immediately after training compared with the controls, criterion indicating plasticity of the capacity of FoA;
    3 .Improvements on character running span task (color words) and multi-object tracking-identity tracking (mot-ID) indicated near transfer effects to similar tasks;
    4. This training regime did not change the performance on general   intelligence, which means the transfer effect was limited to near transfer;
    5. Training effect and near transfer effect could be maintained for 3 months;
    6. The interplay between one's ability and different experiment tasks was complicated, so the individual difference's effects differed in these tasks.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21796
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
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李旭. 老年工作记忆注意焦点容量的可塑性:训练获益、迁移和保持[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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