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汉语词的感情认知与记忆加工:ERP研究
其他题名Recognition and Memory Processing for Affective Connotation of Chinese Words: ERP Study
王一牛
学位类型博士
导师罗跃嘉
2005-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业基础心理学
关键词汉语词 感情色彩 记忆加工 事件相关电位 功能性分配说
摘要

    本课题建立了现代汉语感情色彩评定词库并确定了双字词感情维度。在此基础上,对正常青年被试进行事件相关电位(ERP)实验,动态地研究字词感情色彩在知觉、编码和提取等认知活动的时间进程及其脑机制;进一步认识了字词的感情色彩对其语义认知的作用和影响;通过考察感情色彩词的知觉、相继编码效应及新一旧效应,力求提供客观的ERP指标,以验证愉悦度优势说、右半球优势说和分配说,并提出新的观点与修正,即“功能性分配说”作为分配说的补充,从而完善了J偷悦度优势说、半球优势说及分配说的有关观点,探索具有感情色彩的字词编码和提取的认知过程与神经基础。
    本研究主要得到如下结果:
    ①建立了现代汉语词感情信息的评定方法,证明愉悦度和激动度可较充分地反映词的情感信息;在此基础上,建立了现代汉语感情色彩词库。
    ②感情色彩材料的知觉加工和记忆优于非情绪性材料,而感情色彩材料的加工是基于任务的,正性和负性感情色彩词在感情色彩外显判断时,能够产生认知脑电活动的差异。
    ③词的感情色彩评价诱发出顶、枕区的正性慢波,与词的感情色彩的正负性无关。感情线索可成为指引注意加工的重要标志,情绪调控不仅明显地体现在行为表达中,并且还可增强感情线索的感觉编码。有可能存在两个独立的、相互分离的结构参与正性和负性感情信息的加工机制。
    ④相继记忆效应中,出现了愉悦度和激动度的分离效应,顶区的ERP显示对激动度敏感,额区的ERP显示对激动度和愉悦度均敏感;具有感情色彩的正性、负性词可较中性词得到充分的编码。
    ⑤感情色彩双字词的提取诱发出晚期正成分,正性、中性、负性旧词皆引起ERP晚期成分(LPC)的正走向变化,旧词LPC潜伏期较新词明显提前,正性、中性、负性词的新旧效应具有左半球优势,语义的加工受到感情色彩愉悦度的调节。
    从上述结果,可得出如下结论:相对于愉悦度优势说和右半球优势说,分配说更适于描述感情色彩材料的脑认知加工特点,但感情色彩词的认知是任务依赖的,其过程是特异的。据此,尝试提出“功能性分配说(functional allocationhypothesis)”作为分配说的完善,含义是大脑对感情信息的加工是源于认知任务进行功能分配的,不只是简单的阶段上配置,而是基于认知内容和目标任务的,在知觉、编码、提取等任务中,既有注意资源的调整,又有认知任务的执行,是大脑认知过程的功能性协调过程。

其他摘要

   This study investigated the temporal courses and brain mechanism of affective Chinese connotation during encoding and retrieval processes based on setting up ANCC  (Affective Norms  for  Chinese  Connotation) and determining affective dimensions,  enriching  affective verbal influence on semantic  cognition.  Three experiments were conducted basing on the ANCC, in an attempt to validate valence hypothesis, right hypothesis and allocation hypothesis by experimenting on cognition, subsequent memory effect and new/old effect of Chinese two-character words. A new view "functional allocation hypothesis" was put forward to amend the relative theories.
    The study showed results as follows.
    Two dimensions, pleasantness and activation, are two necessary factors of the affective connotation, and Affective Norms for Chinese Connotation was set up providing for Affective Neuroscience study. Affective  materials  held  superiority  over  materials  with  non-affective connotation. The processing for affective connotation was based on materials and on tasks. Positive and negative words elicited the difference of cognitive electric activities between them.
    Evaluation to affective connotation of words excited late positive parietal and occipital components, independent of positive or negative connotation. Affective information could turn into important indicate to focus on attention processing.Affective modulation embodied on behavior outcome, and on encoding affective connotation also. Maybe there existed two separated mechanisms processing positive and negative affective materials.
    Pleasantness and Activation were separated in subsequent memory experiment, parietal electrodes were sensitive to activation, and frontal ERP were sensitive to activation  and  pleasantness, affective connotation  caught processing  resources superiorly in order to encode better.
    The retrieval for affective words elicited late positive component, and the old words of positive, negative or netrual pleasantness evoked new/old effect with the superiority located on left hemisphere. The processing of semantic was modulated by affective connotation with pleasantness. The processing characteristics of brain cognition could be described by Allocation hypothesis more than valence hypothesis and right hypothesis. Moreover, the course of cognition of Chinese words with connotation affective was task-dependent, and differential. Above all, the functional allocation hypothesis was presented to the effect that allocation hypothesis could be complemented. The hypotheis implys the brain processing to affective connotation have functional allocation according as cognitive task, no only allocated by temporal course simply, but by task and content of cognition also. Fuctional modulation processes of cerebral  cognition contain modulation of attention resources and executing of cognitive assignment during the processing of perception, encoding and memory retrieval.

学科领域心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/21950
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王一牛. 汉语词的感情认知与记忆加工:ERP研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2005.
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