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怀旧应对威胁:行为和认知神经机制
Alternative TitleExamining Neural Mechanisms underlying the Threat-buffering Function of Nostalgia
杨紫嫣
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor蔡华俭
2018-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline基础心理学
Keyword怀旧 死亡威胁 威胁感知 自我调控
Abstract

    在当今的社会生活中,威肋、无处不在。威肋、往往会导致负性情绪和不良的防御性反应,对人们的生活和身心健康造成一系列负性的影响。因此,如何帮助人们应对威胁显得尤为重要。怀旧(nostalgia)是一种自我意识性的社会情绪,具有一系列积极的功能。行为研究表明怀旧可以有效地缓解威肋、,降低威肋、导致的防御性反应。本项目从认知神经视角探讨怀旧如何帮助人们应对威肋、,揭示怀旧威肋、应对功能的认知神经机制。具体地,本项目针对死亡威肋、开展了三个研究。研究一为怀旧与死亡威肋、应对的行为实验。结果发现,怀旧增强了个体对威肋、的反应速度,促进了个体的认知情绪调节,并且降低了死亡威肋、后的防御性反应。这为怀旧应对威胁提供了行为证据,同时为后续的认知神经研究提供了基础。研究二采用事件相关电位(ERP)技术考察怀旧如何影响死亡威肋,诱发的神经电生理反应。结果发现,怀旧一方面会影响个体对威胁信息的早期感知加工,体现在怀旧调节威胁诱发的N1成分;另一方面,怀旧会促进个体的晚期自我调控,体现在怀旧降低威胁诱发的晚正电位成分(LPP)。研究三采用功能性磁共振成像(fMRI)技术,考察怀旧如何影响个体面对死亡威胁时的脑区激活情况,重点关注个体在怀旧后,涉及威胁信息感知和自我调控的脑区活动是否会发生变化。结果发现,怀旧会提高个体对威胁信息的感知,体现在怀旧增强威胁诱发的杏仁核(amygdala)活动;此外,怀旧会增强个体的自我调控,体现在怀旧增强威胁诱发的前扣带皮层(ACC)、背外侧前额叶(DLPFC)区域的活动。本文采用不同的怀旧操纵方法和认知神经范式,全面地揭示怀旧威肋、应对功能的神经机制:通过调节对威肋、的感知和自我调控从而帮助个体应对威肋、。本研究可以促进人们对怀旧的功能尤其是威肋、应对功能的认识,为人们在生活中利用怀旧来更好地应对死亡威肋、和一般意义上的威肋、提供理论指导。

Other Abstract

    Threats are inevitable in our daily life. Threats could lead to negative emotion diverse defensive responses such as aggressiveness and risk behaviors. Therefore, how to help people buffer threats rises as an urgent issue. Nostalgia, as a kind of self-conscious, bittersweet but predominantly positive social emotion, serves a variety of adaptive functions such as buffering threat. Little, however, is known about the neural mechanism underlying the buffering function of nostalgia. To explore this issue, we conducted three studies with death-threat as an illustration. Study 1 includes two  behavioral  experiments  and  found  that  nostalgia  speeds  the  response  to death-related threat information and also reduces the defensive responses to it, which replicates past related findings on one hand and provides a foundation for the following two neural studies. Study 2 uses Event-Related Potential (ERP) technique to investigate how nostalgia affects electrophysiological responses to death threat.Results showed that nostalgia modulates the N1 and further decreases the late positive potential (LPP) components elicited by mortality salience, suggesting that nostalgia modulates early processing of death-related information and late self-regulation.Study 3 adopts functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRl) technique to examine how nostalgia modulates brain responses to mortality threat. Results showed that nostalgia enhances the activities of amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsal  lateral  prefrontal  cortex  (DLPFC),  suggesting  nostalgia  promotes  the perception  and  monitoring  of  death  related  information  as  well  as  ensuing self-regulation. In summary, these results revealed that nostalgia assuage threats by modulating threat perception and corresponding self-regulation simultaneously. These findings  shed light on  the  neural mechanism underlying  adaptive function  of nostalgia.

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/26130
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨紫嫣. 怀旧应对威胁:行为和认知神经机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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