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用户界面的刺激属性及交互方式对时间感受性的影响
Alternative TitleThe Effect of User Interface's Stimuli Properties and Interaction Stvles on User's Temporal Impressibilitv
赵文国
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor张侃 ; 葛燕
2018-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline应用心理学(工程心理学)
Keyword时间感受性 用户界面 刺激属性 交互方式
Abstract

  人们在工作或生活中需要频繁的使用计算机、手机等智能设备。在人与机器交互的过程中系统响应时延会直接影响到用户满意度,进而会影响到用户对产品的总体评价。在人与机器的交互过程中,系统的客观时间和人的主观时间知觉共同影响了人对系统效率和满意度的主观体验。因此,在系统时间不变的情况下,如何通过改变界面设计从而提高人的满意度和用户体验成为了设计师和研究者普遍关注的问题。
    本研究基于前人关于时间知觉的基础研究,对人机交互过程中可能影响到用户的时间感受性的界面设计要素进行解析,从界面的呈现方式、界面刺激的语义信息和交互方式设计三个方面系统地探讨了用户界面的设计对用户时间感受性的影响。本研究通过四个子研究、7个具体的实验对上述问题进行了探讨,具体研究内容和结果如下:
    研究一主要关注界面交互过程中等待界面的动效对时间感受性的影响。通过两个实验考察了静态黑屏、无意义动效、静态图片以及有意义动效对于被试时间感受性的影响,从主观时距估计、速度评估以及时间满意度等三个维度对时间感受性进行了测量。研究结果发现:(1)无意义动效相对于静态图片,会使得用户的主观时间估计变长,速度估计和时间满意度下降;(2)与静态图片相比,现实中有意义的动效会使得用户的主观时间估计变短,速度估计和时间满意度上升。
    研究二从时间差别阂限的角度考察等待界面的动效对时间感受性的影响。差别阂限的测量采用了经典的恒定刺激法实验范式,实验材料同研究一。研究结果发现:(1)与静态黑屏相比,无意义的动效增大了被试差别阂限的范围。(2)无意义的动效对差别阂限的下限影响不大,增加了差别阂限的上限。这一结果意味着在动效条件下,用户更容易将更长的时间估计为与标准时间相同,与静态黑屏相比用户的时间敏感度下降。
    研究三考察了用户界面中图标的时间相关的语义信息对用户的时间感受性的影响。研究中采用了具有“快”的语义信息的“猎豹”和具有“慢”的语义信息的“蜗牛”两种动物的图片来考察语义信息对用户时间感受性的影响。研究结果发现:(1)在时间二分任务中猎豹比蜗牛的二分点小,说明猎豹图片易于被估长。根据Treisman的时间理论模型,说明具有“快”的含义的图片(猎豹)会使得人们的内部时钟速度增加,因而在同样的客观时间长度内会产生更多的节拍,因而人们会把这段时间估长;反之,具有“慢”的含义的图片(蜗牛)会使得人们的内部时钟速度变慢,因而在同样的客观时间长度内会产生较少的节拍,因而人们会把这段时间估短。(2)具有不同语义信息的图片能够影响用户的进度条所呈现的时间估计值,并且具有“快”的语义的图片会导致时间估长,具有“慢”的语义图片反而会被相对估短。因此,具有“慢”的语义的图片能缩短被试对主观时间的感受。
    研究四探讨了用户界面交互过程中分割水平对用户时间感受性的影响。本研究通过模拟图书管理系统的用户注册流程,对注册过程中等待的次数和单次等待的时长进行操控,被试完成注册校验任务后,对流程的全部时间、校验时间、系统的速度和时间满意度进行估计和评估。研究结果表明:(1)分割水平能够影响用户的主观时间感受性。(2)分割水平高的(即等待次数多的)的流程的估计时间比分割水平低的流程的估计时间长;(3)分割水平高的情况下被试的满意度更低。
    根据研究的结果,我们得出如下的结论,即:人们可以通过对用户界面刺激属性以及交互流程的不同设计来影响用户的主观时间估计和时间维度的满意度。并且建议在进行交互等待的界面设计过程中,对刺激属性的选择上推荐采用静态图片,并且静态图片的内容上建议选取具有“慢”含义的图像;同时,在界面交互流程的编排上要尽量减少人与系统之间的交互次数。这样可以降低用户的主观时间估计,改善用户的时间满意度。
    本文研究结果促进了时间感受性的理论研究,拓展了时间知觉理论的应用范围。为用户界面设计中的刺激属性选择和交互流程设计提供了依据,因此对优化用户界面设计、提高用户满意度方面有着重要的现实意义。

Other Abstract

    People need using the computer, mobile phone and other intelligent equipment frequently in their living or working, the delay of system response time (SRT) will directly affect the user satisfaction in the interaction between human and machine, which will affect user's overall experience of product. In the process of interaction through the user interface (UI) between user and system, both of system's objective time and user's subjective time perception affect the efficiency and satisfaction experience of the system together. Therefore, how to reduce the user's subjective time perception, improve the user satisfaction and user experience by changing the UI design has become a common concern for designers and researchers under the same system objective time.
    On the basis of previous researches on time perception, we summarize and analyzed the factors that may affect the user's temporal impressibility in human-computer interaction (HCI). We study three factors of UI which affect the user's temporal impressibifity, they are stimuli's presentation type, stimuli's semantic information and the design of interactive process. In this study, we use 4 substudies which composed of 7 specific experiments to explore the above issues:
    Study 1: The effect of animator on user's time perception and satisfaction, which showing on a waiting screen. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of black static image,meaningless animator, static image and meaningful animator on the time perception. The temporal impressibility was  measured from three dimensions:  subjective  duration estimation,  speed assessment and time-satisfaction. The results showed that: (1)Meaningless animator make user's subjective duration estimation longer than black image, speed evaluation and time-satisfaction lower; (2) While in the reality, the optimized animator and image will make the user's subjective time shorter, speed estimation and time-satisfaction higher;
    Study 2: The effect of animator on user's time difference threshold. The difference threshold was measured with the classical constant stimulus paradigm, and the experimental materials were the same as the study 1 .The results showed that: (1)The meaningless animator affects the time difference threshold range, and it enlarges the range of difference threshold; (2) The meaningless animator has little effect on the lower limit of the difference threshold, mainly affecting the upper limit of the difference threshold. It means that within the limits of the difference threshold, when users estimate the standard length, they tend to believe the longer time as the same as the standard time, and it will reduce the time sensitivity than that of the static black image.
    In the study, the pictures of two kinds of animals with "fast" semantic information "cheetah"and "slow" semantic information were used to investigate the influence of semantic information on user's temporal sensitivity.
    Study 3: The effect of symbolic meaning of user interface elements on the user's time perception. In the study, we use two kinds of animal images with typical semantic information: "cheetah" with "fast" semantic information and "snail" with "slow" semantic information to explore the effect of symbolic meaning on user experience of time. The study found that: (1)The cheetah image's bisection point is smaller than snail's in temporal bisection task. It means that the duration with cheetah's image is easy to be estimated longer than snail's. According to the theoretical model of Treisman, the image(cheetah) with fast symbolic meaning will make the speed of subject's internal clock  increase, and the internal clock will produce more 'Pace' in the unit time, then subject will estimate the time long; conversely, the image(snail) with "slow" symbolic meaning will make the speed of subject's internal clock slow, so in the same objective time will produce less paces, so people will think the time short; (2) The progressbar with different symbolic meaning images can affect the user's time estimate, with the "fast" meaning's image will lead to long duration estimation, with "slow" meaning's image will get a short duration relatively……
   

Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/26152
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Affiliation中科院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵文国. 用户界面的刺激属性及交互方式对时间感受性的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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