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中国人集体主义/个体主义的地区差异及其机制
其他题名Regional Difference of Chinese Collectivism/Individulism and the Mechanism
马欣然
学位类型硕士
导师任孝鹏
2018-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业应用心理学
关键词集体主义 个体主义 地区差异 生态一社会 机制
摘要

    从生态一社会角度探究集体主义/个体主义文化的形成规律和机制是当前跨文化研究领域的关注点之一。而鉴于地理、历史以及现代化进程等方面带来的生态一社会多样性,中国为此提供了较好的研究样本。而且这种多样性提醒我们,传统的东方一西方框架下的研究很可能忽视了中国内部集体主义/个体主义文化的地区特征。近来虽然有学者探究了中国内部集体主义/个体主义的地区差异,但其结果和关注的机制却并不一致。因此,中国内部集体主义/个体主义的地区差异及其背后机制值得进一步探究。本文即通过三个研究分别从省的层面、分界地区以及特殊地区对中国内部集体主义/个体主义的地区差异进行了探索,几种可能的影响机制进行了检验。
    研究一通过一项自我报告任务即自我构建量表和三项内隐文化任务即“亲亲性”任务、分类任务和归因任务,分别从自我构建、“亲亲性”、整体性思维和归因偏好四方面在省的层面上探索了中国内部集体主义/个体主义的地区差异,并对四种竞争机制即现代化理论、气候一经济理论、大米理论和传统文化影响力假说进行了检验。研究二使用相同的四项任务,分别以江苏省和河南省为两个样本点,对此类横跨地理一人文分界线的省份内部的集体主义/个体主义地区差异进行了探索,并检验了四种机制在其中的作用。研究三使用同样的任务,在四个于诸生态一社会因素上存在水平交叠的特殊地区进行探究,对气候一经济理论、大米理论和传统文化影响力假说进一步进行了检验。
    结果发现,(1>在省的层面上确实存在集体主义/个体主义差异,大米理论可以解释整体性思维方面的地区差异,但未能解释其他方面的地区差异,而现代化理论、气候一经济理论和传统文化影响力假说则未能解释任何面向的集体主义/个体主义差异。(2>在横跨分界线的省份中,江苏的南部和北部之间存在着集体主义/个体主义的地区差异,苏南在自我构建和“亲亲性”方面的集体主义倾向与苏北相比都较低,而两地区在整体性思维和归因偏好方面则无显著差异,验证了现代化理论或是气候一经济理论;河南的南部和北部之间在自我构建、“亲亲性”、整体性思维和归因偏好方面均无显著差异,验证了气候一经济理论的成立。综合来看,相较于另外三个理论,气候一经济理论的模型可以稳健地解释分界地区内部的集体主义/个体主义文化特征。(3)在四个于诸生态一社会因素上存在水平交叠的特殊地区中,气候一经济理论更好地解释了这些地区间的集体主义/个体主义倾向差异,气候条件较好的地区在“亲亲性”、整体性思维和归因偏好方面的集体主义倾向皆弱于气候条件较差的地区。
    总体而言,本文的研究结果说明,虽然同处于集体主义文化的大背景中,但中国内部不同地区间在集体主义/个体主义倾向上确实存在差异。这一结果将有助于国内和国际社会进一步理解当下中国社会的文化性格和价值观念。

其他摘要

    It is one of the focuses in current cross-culture research to explore the formation and mechanism of collectivism/individualism from the ecological-social perspective.In view of the ecological-social diversity resulting from geography, history and modernization process, China has provided a good sample for this kind of study. And the diversity also reminds us that the research under the traditional East-West paradigm is fikely to ignore the regional characteristic of collectivism/individualism within China. Although some scholars have explored regional difference in collectivism and individualism of China recently, the results and the mechanisms of concern are not consistent. Therefore, regional difference of collectivism/individualism within China and its underlying mechanism deserve further exploration.This paper aims to explore the regional difference of collectivism/individualism within China from the provinces, transboundary areas and special areas through three studies respectively, and to test the possible mechanisms.
    Using one self-report task, namely self-construal scale, and three implicit cultural tasks, namely nepotism, triad task and attribution, Study 1 explored the regional difference in collectivism /individualism among Chinese provinces from four facets including self construal, nepotism, holistic thought and attribution preference respectively. The four competing mechanisms, namely, Modernization Theory,Climato-Economic Theory, Rice Theory and Traditional Culture Influence Hypothesis were tested as well. With the same measures, Study 2 explored and tested the regional difference in collectivism/individualism within the provinces across the geographical and cultural boundaries and the ecological-social mechanism behind the difference by taking Jiangsu province and Henan province as two sample points. Study 3 tested Climato-Economic Theory, Rice Theory and Traditional Culture Influence Hypothesis further using the same tasks in four special areas of which the ecological and social factors were exactly appropriate to the study.
    The results showed: (1)There is indeed collectivism/individualism difference among provinces. Rice Theory explained regional difference in the holistic thought,but it failed to explain the regional difference in other facets, while Modernization Theory, Climate-Economic Theory and Traditional Cultural Influence Hypothesis failed to explain the regional difference in any facets of collectivism/individulism. (2)There was regional difference in collectivism/individualism between the southern part and the northern part of Jiangsu province. The southern part of Jiangsu was less collective in self-constual and nepotism, which verified the Modernization Theory or the Climato-Economic Theory. There was no significant difference in self-constual, nepotism, holistic thought or attribution preference between the southern part and the northern part of Henan province, which verified the Climato-Economic Theory. Overall, compared to the other three theories, Climato-Economic Theory explained the regional characteristic of collectivism/individualism within the transboundary areas more robustly. (3) In the four special areas, Climato-Economic Theory also explained the regional difference in collectivism/individualism stably. The areas with lower climate demands were less collective than the areas with higher climate demands in nepotism, holistic thought and attribution preference.
    In general, the present study indicates that there is regional difference within China in spite of the same collectivism culture background. This result will contribute to the further understanding of the cultural characters and values of the contemporary Chinese society.

语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/26211
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
马欣然. 中国人集体主义/个体主义的地区差异及其机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2018.
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