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视觉工作记忆编码是基于特征还是基于客体?
其他题名Feature Based or Object Based Encoding in Visual Working Memory?
陈亚楠; 赵俊峰; 杜峰
2018-10
会议名称第二十一届全国心理学学术会议
通讯作者邮箱duf@psych.cn
会议录名称摘要集-第二十一届全国心理学学术会议
页码799-800
会议日期10.30-11.2
会议地点北京
产权排序2
摘要

摘要:视觉工作记忆信息编码的基本单位是特征还是客体?这个问题成为近年来工作记忆研究领域的热点。本研究通过检验错觉结合的客体能否产生记忆驱动的注意捕获效应来判断视觉工作记忆表征编码是基于特征的还是基于客体的,并通过操纵记忆编码的时间(实验1)和记忆测试任务的难度(实验2)来检验视觉工作记忆的编码方式是否受到自上而下控制的调节。研究中被试需要在记忆两个不同颜色和纹理刺激中寻找菱形目标。搜索界面中某一个圆形干扰刺激可能与记忆项完全匹配(颜色和纹理都匹配),或者与记忆项部分匹配(颜色或者纹理某一特征匹配),或者是记忆特征的错觉结合(两个特征来自与两个记忆项,比如红色方格的圆)。如果工作记忆表征编码是基于客体的,只有完全匹配的刺激才能捕获注意,如果工作记忆表征编码是基于特征的,那么完全匹配和错觉结合的刺激均能捕获注意。实验1操纵了工作记忆表征的编码时间(300 ms vs 2000ms),结果发现:记忆编码时程较短时(300ms),完全匹配和错觉匹配刺激都捕获的注意,说明在记忆编码时程较短时工作记忆的表征是基于特征的。然而,当记忆编码时间延长至2000ms,只有完全匹配的刺激能捕获注意,错觉匹配刺激的注意捕获效应消失了,说明当记忆编码时间较长时工作记忆的表征是基于客体的。实验1的结果表明工作记忆表征最初阶段采用的是基于特征的编码方式,随着记忆时间延长基于客体的编码被激活,该结果与特征整合的过程相一致。实验2操纵了记忆测试的难度,发现了在只呈现一个探测刺激的简单记忆测试任务中,完全匹配刺激和错觉匹配刺激均产生了记忆驱动的注意捕获效应,而当要求被试在8个探测刺激中仔细区分是否有记忆项的复杂记忆测试任务中,错觉匹配刺激对注意的捕获效应消失了。该结果说明记忆测试任务难度影响工作记忆信息的编码方式。以上研究结果表明视觉工作记忆初期是以特征方式进行编码,随着时间发展个体将特征整合形成客体。工作记忆中的信息编码是一个复杂的过程,受自上而下的任务控制调节。

其他摘要

Abstract:Researchers have long debated whether the fundamental unit in visual working memory is object or feature. The current study conducted a strict examination of object-based or feature based encoding in visual working memory, by probing whether illusory conjunction objects could lead to memory-driven attentional capture, and manipulated the encoding time ( Experiment 1) and the difficulty of memory probe task ( Experiment 2) to examine whether the encoding mode of visual working memory is regulated by top-down control. The participants memorized two object’s color and texture (red striped disk and blue check board disk) and concurrently performed a visual-search task. They searched for a target diamond among distractor disks. One disk in the search display could fully match one of the memorized object’s color and texture or partially match the color or texture of memorized objects, also some search displays contained distractors with two memorized features (illusory conjunction objects, e.g., red check board disk). We assume that if object-based encoding indeed takes place in visual working memory, only fully match distractors should capture attention. If feature-based encoding takes place in visual working memory, both fully match and illusory conjunction of the two memorized items should capture attention. In Experiment 1, the encoding time was manipulated (300ms vs 2000ms), when the ISI was short(300ms), relative to a new distractor condition, where one of the disk’s color and texture were new, which was not a memorized item, search time was significantly prolonged in fully match and illusory conjunction conditions. However, the memory-driven attentional capture effect of illusory conjunction condition was disappeared when the ISI was long (2000ms). This demonstrates that after an initial feature-based guidance phase, object-based templates were activated. This result coincides with the start of feature integration processes. In Experiment 2, where the difficulty of memory probe task was controlled, in simple probe task when there was only one probe item, the search time of fully match and illusory conjunction condition were significantly longer than the RTs of the new distractor condition. However, when participants were required to distinguish memorized item and nonmemorized objects among 8 items display, the memory-driven attentional capture effect of illusory conjunction condition was disappeared. These results, therefore, imply that visual information can be represented as features in visual working memory at the initial stage, and individuals integrated the features into objects over time. The encoding of information in visual working memory is a complex process, and modulated by the top-down task control.

关键词视觉工作记忆 基于特征编码 基于客体编码
语种中文
文献类型会议论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/27296
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位1.河南大学教育科学学院
2.中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈亚楠,赵俊峰,杜峰. 视觉工作记忆编码是基于特征还是基于客体?[C],2018:799-800.
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