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大学新生的积极率及其相关因素研究
Alternative TitleResearch on the posiitivity ratio and related factors of College Freshmen
杜学敏
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor刘正奎
2018-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword大学新生 积极率 自尊 功能 失调性态度
Abstract

目的:

积极率指一个人一段时间内的积极情绪与消极情绪的比值,是衡量个体心理健康状况的重要指标。本研究通过了解大学新生的积极率现状及影响因素,研究提升积极率的有效途径,为提高大学生的心理健康水平提供新思路。

方法:

本研究以大学新生为研究对象,主要分为三个部分:

(1)研究一:2015年至2017年连续三年每年采用积极率自评量表对北京某高校大一新生进行测量,三年共计测量1746人,并探讨性别、是否独生子女、生源地、学科、家庭经济情况、对家庭的喜好程度、父母文化程度等因素对积极率的影响。

(2)研究二:采用自尊量表、功能失调性态度量表、积极率自评量表对北京某高校的400名大一新生进行测量,研究大学生的积极率与认知功能、自尊的关系。

(3)研究三:招募12名普通在校生志愿者,每周定时发放积极率自评量表,6人参与实验中的团体辅导,6人作为控制组不参与辅导。基于大学生积极率水平及其影响因素的研究结果进行干预,通过两组大学生的比较,研究积极团体辅导对大学生积极率提升的效应。

结果:

(1)研究一中大学新生积极率的总平均值为1. 4114,达到积极率最佳配比的人数比例为7. 31%,情绪状态不佳积极率小于1的人数比例为27. 05%0“家庭经济状况CP<0.05)"、“专业类别(P<0. O1) ",“对家庭的喜爱程度(P<0. 01)”对积极率有显著性影响。其中,家庭经济贫困的大学生积极率最低;工科学生的积极率最高,理科次之,文科最低;对于家庭的喜爱程度越高,积极率越高。

(2)研究二中大学新生的自尊,功能失调性态度与积极率均呈正相关。大学新生在功能失调性态度中认同(P<0. 05 )、爱(P<0. 01)、成就(P<0. 01)、完美(P<0. O1)、自主性(P<0. 01)5项因子与自尊呈正相关,成就(P<0. 01 )、完美(P<0. O1)、自主性(P<0. O1) 3项因子与积极率呈正相关。成就因子和自尊可以直接影响积极率,自主性因子通过自尊间接对积极率产生影响。

(3)研究三中被试积极率的平均值为3. 04,被试的积极率呈现整体上升趋势。对照组同学的积极率平均值为2. 59,他们所感受到的积极情绪和消极情绪普遍波动较大且起伏无规律,变化趋势不尽相同。

结论:

(1)大学新生的积极率达到最佳配比的比例较低。

(2)大学新生的自尊程度与积极率正相关。自尊程度越高,积极率越高。

(3)大学新生的功能失调性态度总体呈正向时,自尊趋于较高水平,积极率也呈上升趋势;自尊在功能失调性态度对积极率的影响中起部分中介作用。

(4)自尊在自主性因子和积极率之间起着完全中介作用,而在成就因子和积极率之间无中介效应。

(5)积极团体辅导可以有效提升大学生的积极率。

研究结果提示:

不过度依赖他人评价、自爱、不以成就为生活重心以及具备自主获得快乐能力的大学新生,其自尊水平相对较高,积极率也相对较高。在新生入学后的心理素质教育中可以重点关注积极率低于1的学生,提升大学生的积极率可以从家庭因素、经济支持入手,并且对不同专业的学生进行有针对性的心理健康教育。

Other Abstract

Objective:

Positive rate refers to the ratio of positive emotion to negative emotion of one person over a period of time. It is an important index to measure individual mental health status. According to analyzing the cun-ent status and influencing factors of the positive rate of the freshmen, this paper shows effective ways to improve the positive rate and provides a new method for improving the mental health of college students.

Method:

The freshmen are the research objects of this study, which is divided into three parts:

Research one: For three years $-om 2015 to 2017, 1746 freshmen in a university in Beijing were randomly selected to fill in a self-rating scale to measure the positive rate Various factors were taken into consideration, including gender, whether they are the only child, where they go to high school, school subjects, family financial conditions, parents' education level, how they like their family.

(2) Research two: 400 freshmen of one university in Beijing were measured by using the self esteem scale, dysfunctional attitude scale and self rating scale, to study the relationship of college students positive rate, cognitive function and self-esteem.

(3) Research three: 12 ordinary college students were recruited as volunteers, who received the positive rate self rating scale every weelc.with 6 of them involved in group counseling in the experiment and the other 6 as the control group. Based on the research results of the students' positive rate and its influencing factors, the effect of positive group guidance on the positive rate of college students was studied by comparing the two groups of college students.

ktesult:

(1) According to research one, in the years 2015-2017, the total average of the freshmen's positive rate is 1.4114. The ratio of the optimum positive rate which is above 3 is 7.31%; The ratio of the positive rate of the poor emotional state is less than 1, and the proportion is 27.05%. Factors including "family financial status (p<0.05)","majoring field (p<0.01)" and "how they.like their family (p<0.01)" have a significant impact on positive rate. Among them, the students in poor family financial condition have .the lowest positive rate. The highest positive rate belongs to the engineering students, while the second belongs to students of science and the lowest of liberal arts; the more they like their family, the higher the positive rate is.

(2) According to research two,we found that self esteem, dysfunctional attitudes and positive rates of college freshmen were positively coz}related. Among the factors of dysfunetional attitudes, approval (p<0.05), love (p<0.01), achievement (p

(3) According to research three, the average positive rate of the third research is 3.04, and the positive rate of the subjects has showed an overall upward trend. The average positive rate of the control group is 2.59 slightly lower than the average. Although the positive and negative emotions felt by the subjects of this group are even, individual positive rates show great fluctuations and are irregular, with different change tendencies.

Conclusion:

(1) The proportion of Freshmen with optimum positive rate ratio is low (2) Self esteem of freshmen is positively correlated with positive rate. The greater the degree of self-esteem is, the higher the positive rate will be.

(3) When college freshmen have a positive attitude towards dysfunction, the self esteem tends to be higher and the positive rate is also on the rise; self-esteem partly mediates when dysfunctional attitude has an influence on the positive rate.

(4) Self-esteem plays a full mediating role between independent factor and positive rate, but there is no mediating effect between achievement factor and positive rate.

(5) Positive group counseling can effectively improve the positive rate of college students.

Research results suggest:

The college freshmen who do not rely on others' evaluation, love themselves, do not regard achievement as the center of life and have the ability to acquire happiness independently have relatively high self esteem and relatively high positive rates. The psychological education of freshmen can focus on the students whose positive rate is lower than 1. To improve the positive rate of college students, we can start from investigating family factors and offering financial support, and carry out targeted psychological education for students of different majors.

Pages68
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28472
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杜学敏. 大学新生的积极率及其相关因素研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2018.
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