PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
男性醉酒驾驶者的心理健康状况及其人格特点和应付方式的关系
Alternative TitleIdemtification of the Profile of Mental Health in Male Drunken Drivers and its Relationship With Their Coping Sytele and Personnality
夏艳
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李勇辉
2016-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline健康心理学
Keyword男性 醉酒驾驶 16PF SCLW90 应付方式
Abstract

醉酒驾驶是全世界一个严重的公共卫生问题,是道路交通事故的主要原因。醉酒驾驶者存在着不同程度的酒精依赖问题。国内关于醉酒驾驶者的相关研究不多,前期研究表明,醉酒驾驶者存在明显的如躯体化、焦虑、抑郁、敌对等心理问题;面对困境多采用一种退避的应对方式。但这些研究样本量偏小,并且没有考察酒精依赖程度在其中的作用。本研究试图探究男性醉酒驾驶者的心理健康状况、人格特点,和应付方式的特征和相关性及其与酒精依赖程度的关系。让醉酒驾驶者对自身有更好的认识,了解自身依赖程度和应对方式等方面的问题。同时为醉酒驾驶问题的防治提供依据。

本研究采用量表对2013年5月至2014年10月期间,北京某看守所3'l8例男性醉酒驾驶者进行测查。使用密西根酒精调查表(MAST)筛查和区分酒精依赖程度,高于平均分一个标准差作为酒精高依赖组:低于平均分一个标准差作为酒精低依赖组。使用卡特尔量表(16PF),测量醉酒驾驶者的人格特质,并与常模进行比较。使用症状自评量表(SCL-90)评定其心理健康状况。使用应付方式量表(CSQ)调查其应对行为类型和特点。相应的数据进行相关分析,并进一步考察酒精依赖程度与醉酒驾驶者的心理健康、应对方式与人格特征的关系。

研究结果表明:(一)醉酒驾驶者16Pr的得分与常模有显著差异:在乐群性、兴奋性、敢为性、幻想性、忧虑性、紧张性6个因子的得分显著高于全国常模(P<0.01);在聪慧性、有恒性、怀疑性、实验性、独立性、自律性6个因子的得分显著低于全国常模(P<0.01 )。(二)醉酒驾驶者存在明显的心理健康问题,SCE,-90的总均分显著高于常模,在躯体化、焦虑、恐怖和精神病性4个因分量表得分显著高于常模(P<0. 01),人际关系得分显著低于常模的因子( P< 0. 01)。(三)醉酒驾驶者的人格特征,酒精依赖程度,心理健康状况和应付方式存在显著相关。(1)醉酒驾驶者16PT的聪慧性、有恒性、敏感性、自律性因子与酒精依赖程度(MAST总分)呈显著负相关(P<0. 05)。在恃强性、怀疑性、忧虑性、实验性、紧张性等与酒精依赖程度(MAST总分)呈显著正相关(PG<0.05)。醉酒驾驶者16PF的乐群性、稳定性、恃强性、兴奋性、有恒性、敢为性、实验性、自律性等与其心理健康状况(SCL-90总分)呈显著负相关(P<0.05)。在聪慧性、敏感性、忧虑性与SCL-90总分等呈显著正相关(P<0.05)。(2)醉酒驾驶者应付方式的消极因子:自责、幻想、退避、合理化与SCL--90的总分、躯体化、强迫症状、人际关系、抑郁、焦虑和敌对等因子均成显著相关(P<0.05)。醉酒驾驶者应付方式的积极因子:解决问题与酒精依赖程度(MAST总分)呈显著负相关(P<0.01)。而在自责这一消极的应付方式与酒精依赖程度((MAST总分)呈显著正相关(P<0.05)。(四)酒精高、低依赖组在16PF, SCI.-90和应付方式的差异。C1)在16PF因子上,聪慧性、有恒性、自律性(P<0.01);稳定性、敢为性、敏感性(P<0.05)这6个因子酒精高依赖组得分低于酒精低依赖组。在恃强性、怀疑性、疑虑性、紧张性(P<0.01) 4个消极因子酒精高依赖组得分高于酒精低依赖组。(2)在SCL-90因子上,酒精高依赖组得分低于酒精低依赖组:人际关系CP<0. 05)、精神病性(P<0.05),特别是在强迫因子(P<0.01)上达到了非常显著的水平。C3)在应付方式上,酒精高依赖组得分高于酒精低依赖组:求助因子(P<0.05)。酒精高依赖组得分低于酒精低依赖组:幻想(P<0.05),合理化(P<0.01)。

研究结论:醉酒驾驶者存在明显的心理健康问题,主要表现在情绪不稳定,紧张焦虑,冲动攻击,缺乏耐心和人际关系问题等,其心理健康问题与其自责、幻想、退避、合理化等消极的应对方式,及与特定的人格特征有关,一方面表现为自卑感强自信心低,另一方面又表现为逞强好胜,自负自以为是。不善于求助,难以进行有效的应付;常常靠幻想解决和应对。这些问题加剧了酒精的使用,对酒精的依赖进一步加剧了心理健康问题和更多的使用消极的应对方式。综上所述,醉酒驾驶人群的酒精依赖程度、心理健康水平、人格特点和应对方式互相影响。需要进行必要的心理干预。建议可考虑从改变其不成熟的应付方式着手,培养其积极的应付方式,建立起解决问题的能力和信心。

Other Abstract

Drunk driving is a serious public health problem all over the world, and it is the main cause of road traffic accidents. Drunk drivers have different levels of alcohol dependence.

The relevant research literature on drank drivers is not enough in China. Previous studies showed that drunk driving were obvious such as somatization, anxiety, depression, hostility and other psychological problems, to use a back off coping style when facing difficulties. However, the sample size was small, and the role of alcohol dependence severity in it was not investigated. This study tried to explore the psychological health status, personality characteristics and coping style of male drunk drivers, and their relationship with alcohol dependence. Let drunk drivers have a better understanding of their own, to understand their dependence on the extent and coping ways and other issues. At the same time to provide a basis for the prevention and treatment of drunk driving problem.

This study used different types of questionnaires to assess the mental health status coping style and personality for the 378 drunken drivers in the Beijing detention center for the period from May 2013 to October 2014. Using MAST scale to screen and discriminate on the severity of alcohol dependence, higher than a standard deviation from the average score as high alcohol dependence group9 lower than a standard deviation from the average score as low alcohol dependence group. Using 16PF scale to measure personality traits of drunk drivers, and compared with the norms. Using SCL-90 scale to assess their mental health status. Using CSQ scale to investigate the types and characteristics of coping behaviors. The correlationship among the tasks were analyzed, and the relationship between the mental health, coping style and personality characteristics were investigated.

The findings in the present study is as followings: (I) Drunk drivers scored there are significantly different from the norm on the 16PF: In gregariousness, excitement, dare, imagination, worry, tension, six factors score was significantly higher than the national norm(P< 0.01); in intelligence, perseverance, doubt, experiment, independence, self discipline six factor score was significantly lower than the national noun (P<0.01). (II)Drunk drivers haws mental health problems significantly, the total score of SCL-90 was significantly higher than the norm: In somatization, anxiety, phobia and mental disease in the 4 factors for subscales were significantly higher than those of the norm (P<0.01), interpersonal relationship score was significantly lower than norm (P<0.01). (III)There was a significant correlation between the personality characteristics, alcohol dependence, mental health status and coping style of the drunk drivers. (1)Drunk drivers in 16PF's intelligence, perseverance, sensitivity, self-factor and alcohol dependence severity (IVIAST) showed a significant negative correlation (P<0.05). In aggressiveness, suspicion, anxiety experiment, tension and other and alcohol dependence severity (MAST) total score level showed significant positive correlation(P<0.05). Drunk drivers in 16PF's gregariousness stableness, aggressiveness, excited, perseverance, dart to, experiment, self-discipline, and mental health (SCL-90) showed a significant negative correlation (P<0.05). In the intelligence, sensitivity, anxiety and SCL-90 total score was significantly positively correlated (P<0.05). (2) The negative factors of the coping style of drunk drivers: pelf-blame, fantasy, withdrawal, rationalization and SCL-90 total score, somatization, forced symptoms, interpersonal relationship, depression, anxiety and hostility and other factors were significantly correlated (P<0.05). Drunk drivers' coping style positive factors: problem solving and alcohol dependence severity (MAST) showed significant negative correlation (P<0.01). In this negative coping style and alcohol dependence severity (MAST) was significantly positively correlated (P<0.005). (IV)There were significant differences in 16PF, SCL-90 and coping style between the high alcohol and low dependence groups. (1) In the 16PF factors, intelligence, perseverance, self discipline (P < 0.01); stability, dare to, sensitivity (P<0.05) the six factor of alcohol dependence group scored lower than low alcohol dependent group. In aggressiveness, doubt, suspicion, tension (P<0.01) four negative factor of alcohol dependence group score higher than low alcohol dependent group. (2) High alcohol dependent group scored lower than low alcohol dependent group in factors of SCL,-90: interpersonal relationship (P<0.005), psychoticism (P<0.05), especially in the forcing factor (P<0.01) reached very significant correlation. (3)The high alcohol dependence group scored higher than the alcohol dependent group in the coping style: the help-seeking factor (P<0.005). 'The high alcohol dependence group scored lower than the alcohol dependent group: fantasy (P<0.05), rationalization (P<0.01).

The main conclusions in the present study is as follows: gunk drivers have obvious mental health problems, mainly in the emotional instability, anxiety, impulsive aggressive, lack of patience and interpersonal problems etc. The mental health problems of drunk drivers and self blame, fantasy, avoidance, rationalization and negative coping style and personality, associated with the specific char0acteristics of the personality. On the one hand able to perform low self-esteem and low self-confidence, on the other hand, perform as seek to prevail over others, self-opinionated. IVot good at help, difficult to effectively cope with. Often rely on fantasy to solve and deal with the problem, these problems exacerbated by the use of alcohol, alcohol dependence has further exacerbated the psychological health problems and more use of negative coping style. To sum up the conclusion of this study that alcohol dependence, mental health, personality and coping styles are influenced each other on the drunk drivers. Need to carry out the necessary psychological intervention. It is recommended to consider to deal with the change the immature coping style. Cultivate their positive coping style and build up the ability and confidence to solve the problem.

Pages32
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29059
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
夏艳. 男性醉酒驾驶者的心理健康状况及其人格特点和应付方式的关系[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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