PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
中国大学生对生物运动中的人际交互知觉研究
Alternative TitlePerception of Interpersonal Interactions in Biological Motion一Studies in Chinese College Students
边红艳
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor杨志
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline医学心理学
Keyword生物运动 人际互动 社会动机 性别差异 跨文化差异
Abstract

人类对生物信息具有敏感的知觉能力,并能进而认知人际关系。相对于生物信息认知,对人际关系的认知加工更多地受到自身认知系统特性的影响。lxl而通过研究人际关系认知的特性,我们可以从更底层了解人类的社会信息加工机制。更重要的是,人际关系认知机制研究为我们提供了揭示情绪障碍的脑功能异常的新途径。目前,国外己开展正常人群的人际关系知觉特性研究。然而,由于文化差异可能对人际关系认知特征产生较大影响,国外的研究结果未必适用于中国人。本研究致力于测量中国正常人群的人际关系认知特征,从而为进一步研究中国异常人群的人际关系认知特征提供基础测量。

通过点光源的运动轨迹描绘人类动作中各关节运动轨迹的方法己被广泛用于人类生物运动知觉研究。该技术完善控制了刺激材料中的面部特征、环境背景等物理属性,从而使生物信息知觉的测量最小程度地受到混淆因素的影响。因此我们利用点光源运动刺激呈现人际互动的动作。

在研究一中,我们研究人际交互的辨识特征。我们向参与者播放19项人际互动刺激(每项由男、女表演者各表演一次)和8项非交流性对照刺激,要求参与者首先确定两个行动者是正在交流还是相互独立的行动,再简短描述两个行动者的动作。参与者的反应由一名对实验目的不知情的评判员对是否正确判别互动刺激、是否正确识别社会动机、是否正确识别动作三方面进行判断。结果:1.对交流性动作和非交流性动作的识别正确率均较高,且与国外研究结果一致:2被试对动作“这么高吗?”的社会动机识别率高于国外研究,对“请坐下”和“请起立”的动作识别率较国外研究高,对“请靠近点”的动作识别率较低。3.在个别动作中,不同性别演员表演的动作存在识别率差异。4.观察者的性别与表演者的性别无显著交互作用。

在研究二中,我们测量被试对人际交互动作的主观评价。对于每个动作,首先向参与 者说明相应的动作意图,然后向他们展示在一个特定视角观察该动作的视频,并要求他们评价其能够被理解的程度。参与者需要用七点量表评价:行为者IA是否正在向行为者B交流某事情;行为者A是否正在做出表达该意图的动作。结果:1人际交互动作的得分显著高于无交互的对照刺激:2.在“我很生气”动作中,女性表演者获得的评分显著高于男性表演者;3.在对四个动作的评分中,女性观察者的评分显著高于男性;对两个研究的结果进行相关分析,发现研究一中的动作识别率与研究二中主观评定得分具有显著正相关。

通过以上研究,我们发现,中国正常人群对人际互动动作敏感性较高、社会动机判断较准确。女性观察者对某些动作的识别比男性敏感;在动作姿势的表达方而,女性对某些动作姿势的表达优于男性,而只有一个动作是男性表达优于女性。本研究不仅初步测量了中国文化背景一下的正常人群对人际交流信息的加工特点,还筛选出了该人群较易识别的人际交流点光源刺激,为今后研究异常人群的人际交流认知特点提供了重要基础。

Other Abstract

Human visual perception is sensitive to biological information so that interpersonal relationship can be effectively perceived. Different from biological information perception, perception of interpersonal relationship is remarkably affected by characteristics of human cognitive systems. Thus, understanding the characteristics of interpersonal relationship perception helps to uncover human social cognition mechanism. More importantly, studies on interpersonal relationship perception would provide a novel anvenue to reveal brain functional abnormality under emotional disorders. There are a few studies on interpersonal relationship percepiton in foreign normal population. However, it is well established that cultural differences affect social cognition. Research results based on foreign population may not apply to population in Chinese culture. This work investigates the characteristics of interpersonal relationship perception based on normal Chinese  population, so as to provide a basis to further applying this approach to Chinese mental disorder patients.

The biological motion methodology that tracks moving orbits of point light sources marking each joint in human actions has been widely applied to studies on human visual perception. This technology perfectly controls the physical properties of stimuli, such as facial features and environmental background, so that measure of perception of biological information can rarely been impacted by confounding factors. Thm0efore, we adopt this methodology to display actions of interpersonal interaction.

In study 1,we played video clips to participants, which included 19 interactive actions (each action is performed twice, one by male actors and one by female actresses) and 8 Non-interactive actions. The participants were required to first determine if the two performers are interacting with each other or performing independent actions, and then make a brief description of the two performers' actions. The responses of the participants were rated by an experimenter blind to the aim of the study in terms of three aspects, i.e. whether they correctly judge interactive actions, whether they correctly identify social motivation and whether they correctly identify the actions. The results were: 1 .Consistent with the research results from western countries, the correct recognition rates of both interactive actions and non-interactive actions wart high. 2. The social motivation identification rate for "so high" was higher than that indicated in foreign results; The action identification rates for "Sit down, please" and "Stand up, please" were higher than those indicated in the research results of foreign countries while the action identification rate for the action "Please come closer" was lower. 3. In some particular actions, there were differences in identification rates for actions performed by male and female performers. 4.The gender of the participants did not significantly interact with the gender of the performers.

In study 2, we examined the subjective assessment of the interpersonal interaction actions. For each action, we first described the intention of the action to participants and then asked them to rate the clarity of the corresponding vedio clips recorded from specific view points. Specifically, participants were asked to fill in a 7-point scale to judge whether performer A is communicating something to performer B and whether performer A is performing act to express its intention. The results were: 1 .The rating scores for interactive actions were significantly higher than that for non-interactive actions. 2. The scores for actions performed by females were significantly higher than those performed by males in the action "I am angry". 3.The scores for the actions performed by females were significantly higher than those by male performers in four actions. Correlation analysis between the results from the two studies showed that there were a significant positive correlation between the action identification rates in study 1 and the subjective score in study 2.

Taken together, we found that Chinese normal population is highly sensitive to actions of interpersonal interactions and can accurately judge social motivation. Females tend to be more sensitive to some actions than male and can perform some actions better than males. Males can perform only one action better than females. This study not only preliminarily determines the characteristics of normal population's perception of interpersonal communication under Chinese cultural background, but also screens point light source simuli of interpersonal interaction that are able to be easily identified by such population, so as to provide an important foundation for future studies on perceptive characteristics of interpersonal interactions of abnormal population in Chinese culture.

Pages67
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29120
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
边红艳. 中国大学生对生物运动中的人际交互知觉研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2013.
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