心理咨询师的心理需要及相关因素的研究
其他题名The Research of needs and its influential factors in counselors
王香玲
学位类型硕士
导师高文斌
2007-11-23
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词心理咨询师 需要 艾森克人格问卷 童年期经历问卷 爱德华个性偏向量表
摘要本研究采用问卷法探讨心理咨询师(含学员)的心理需要及其与人格、童年经历、生活事件的关系。研究分成三部分进行:研究一,心理咨询师的需要结构;研究二,心理咨询师与非心理咨询师需要特点的比较分析,研究组是前一个研究中去掉博士学位和40岁以上的共90人,对照组是心理学专业却不准备做咨询师的心理系学生,包括心理学专业的本科生、研究生以及研究生课程班的学员,共64人;研究三,对影响心理咨询师需要特点的各因素之间的关系进行初步探索。研究一与研究三的被试都是北京市已经从业的心理咨询师和全国各地来北京参加培训的咨询师学员,共123人。本研究的主要结果如下: 1.心理咨询师EPPS结果:按照原始分数两两对比,计算出把这十五种需要排在第一位的人数从高到低依次是:省察、变异、支配、扶助、秩序、求助、亲和=自主、成就、持久、异性、顺从、表现=谦卑=攻击;按照原始分数均值心理咨询师的需要结构从高到低依次是省察、成就、扶助、自主、变异、求助、持久、支配、秩序、亲和、攻击、表现、顺从、谦卑、异性。咨询师较低的需要结构是攻击、表现、顺从、谦卑、异性,优势需要是省察、扶助、变异。两者相比,差异最大的是成就、支配需要。 2.不同学历在心理咨询师的各种需要上得分差异均不显著;婚姻是影响自主、表现、求助需要的重要因素,而年龄则主要影响顺从、亲和、扶助需要;在乡村长大的被试比在城镇长大的被试有较高的扶助心;和非独生子女相比,独生子女爱表现,支配欲望强烈,缺少亲和力和扶助心;咨询师中心理学专业与其它专业相比,求助需要高,变异需要低。心理学、医学、教育学专业的咨询师比其它专业的咨询师在求助需要上得分高,在顺从需要上得分低。接受不同类型培训的咨询师在各种需要上差异不显著。 3.非心理咨询师EPPS结果显示,按照原始分数两两对比,计算出把这十五种需要排在第一位的人数从高到低依次是:持久、秩序、支配=变异、自主=省察=扶助、亲和、求助、攻击、成就、异性、表现=谦卑、顺从;按照原始分数均值,非心理咨询师的需要结构从高到低依次是扶助、持久、成就、秩序、省察、变异、自主、支配、亲和、求助、攻击、表现、谦卑、顺从、异性。两者相比,差异最大的是成就、支配需要;较低的需要倾向都包括表现、谦卑、顺从、异性,较高的需要倾向都有持久、秩序、扶助、省察。 4.心理咨询师与非心理咨询师在省察、谦卑需要上差异显著。男性心理咨询师与非心理咨询师在谦卑需要上差异显著,在自主需要上差异边缘显著。女性心理咨询师比女性非心理咨询师有较高的求助倾向。心理学专业中,咨询师比非咨询师在省察需要上得分高。非心理学专业的咨询师比心理学专业的非咨询师在省察需要上得分高。 5.心理咨询师与非心理咨询师在童年创伤的任一因子上差异均不显著;在正负性生活事件数上得分差异不显著。但考虑到影响程度,在正性生活事件上差异不显著,而在负性生活事件上差异边缘显著。 6.心理咨询师比非心理咨询师在神经质上得分低。非心理学专业的咨询师比心理学专业的咨询师在神经质得分上较低。 7.心理咨询师与学员之间,除了顺从需要稍有差异外(心理咨询师的顺从需要大于学员),在其余需要、童年经历、生活事件、人格上得分差异均不显著。 8.童年期虐待问卷、艾森克人格问卷(EPQ)和爱德华个性偏向量表(EPPS)的多项评定结果相关。正负生活事件与各种需要做相关分析,结果并不显著,但许多具体生活事件与各种需要显著相关。本研究结果提示,影响需要倾向的因素可能主要是童年创伤、具体生活事件和人格特质。 9.心理咨询师性格特征与童年期虐待经历密切相关。特别是童年创伤总分高的被试更具有精神质、神经质倾向,性格更内向。纳入调查的心理咨询师在总体上,童年创伤分数过高的人数很少,人格特点表现为高外倾性、低精神质。 结论: 1. 咨询师的优势需要:省察、扶助、变异。 2. 与非心理咨询师相比,咨询师的省察需要高,神经质分数较低,没有经历更多的童年创伤和负性生活事件。 3. 影响心理咨询师需要结构的因素可能主要是童年经历、人格特质、生活事件。
其他摘要The aim of this research is to explore the tendency of needs and its influential factors in counselors at present time.Three studies were carried out: study 1 was to find out the tendency of needs and the structure of needs in counselors. Study 2 was to compare the needs between counselors and non-counselors, in which 64 subjects were students majored in psychology but they don’t want to counsel.Study 3 was to initially explore the relationships between the tendency of needs and its influential factors. Studies of the 1 and 3 selected 123 counselors. It was found that: 1. The results of EPPS in counselors: according to comparison between original marks, the number of subjects who range first from high to low was: introspection,change,dominance,nurse,order,succor,affinity=autonomy,achievement,endurance,heterosexuality,deference,aggression=exhibition=abasement ; according to means of original marks, the tendency of needs from high to low was: introspection,achievement,nurse,autonomy,change,succor,endurance,dominance,order,affinity,aggression,exhibition,deference,abasement,heterosexuality. The lower one of the counselors were needs of aggression, exhibition,deference,abasement and heterosexuality,the high one are introspection,nurse and change.The most difference was achievement need. 2. Dilemmas had no significantly different effect on the needs of counselors, but sexuality and age affect them in some factors. There were significant differences in the factors of deference, exhibition and nurse among different ages. Counselors married had higher tendency of obedience, autonomy, introspection, nurse and endurance than those unmarried. 3. The results of EPPS in non-counselors: according to comparison between original marks, the number of subjects who range first from high to low was: endurance,order,change=dominance,autonomy= introspection=nurse,affinity,succor,aggression,achievement,heterosexuality,exhibition=abasement,deference; according to original marks’means, the tendency of needs from high to low was: nurse,endurance,achievement,order,introspection,change,autonomy,dominance,affinity,succor,aggression,exhibition,abasement,deference,heterosexuality. The lower one of the counselors were needs of aggression, exhibition,deference,abasement and heterosexuality,the high one were introspection,nurse and change.The most difference was achievement need. 4. There were significant differences in the needs of abasement and introspection between counselors and non-counselors. Male counselors and non-counselors had significant differences in the factor of abasement. Female counselors had higher tendency of succor needs. 5. The differences of childhood traumas and positive life events were not significant. The positive and negative life events themselves had no significant differences, but negative life events had marginal significant difference between the two groups. 6. The marks of counselors were lower than non-counselors in the factors of neuroticism. 7. Counselors and trainees had no significant differences among other needs、childhood traumas、life events、personality and coping styles except in the deference need. 8. The result of multiple estimation of EPQ , CTQ and EPPS were related.Many specific life events were related with the tendency of many needs. As shown in the research, children’s traumas, characteristic and life events may affect needs chiefly. 9. There were close relation between characteristic and childhood traumas in counselors. Especially the subjects with more childhood traumas had higher tendency of psychoticism, neuroticism and introvision. There were few persons with much high scores on the Childhood traumas in the subjects.Their personality characteristics indicate high extrovision and low psychoticism.Their childhood traumas may affect the shape of sound personality. Conclusion: 1. The most important tendency of needs were introspection,nurse and change. 2. The differences of childhood traumas and life events were not significant between counselors and non-counselors. The marks of counselors were higher than non-counselors in the factors of introspection, but lower in the factor of neuroticism. 3. The main influential factors in counselors of needs were childhood traumas、characteristic and life events.
页数51
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4388
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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王香玲. 心理咨询师的心理需要及相关因素的研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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