投射性空间关系表达过程的研究
其他题名The Courses of Expression of Projective Spatial Relation
杨群会
学位类型博士
导师张侃
2007-06-27
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词空间参照系 投射性空间关系 空间认知概念表征 空间语言
摘要不同的语言中都有丰富的空间词汇和表达空间信息的方式,人类可以使用语言进行空间知识的交流。人们能够通过运用和理解空间语言交流空间知识的基础是空间语言在人们的知觉经验、行为和空间环境之间搭建了一种映射关系。本文从表达投射性空间关系的过程入手,对人们如何搭建这种映射关系,哪些因素会影响映射过程,以及如何影响等问题进行了初步研究。 在一系列的研究中,实验1采用按键反应的方式,对知觉表征投射性空间关系的特点进行了研究,在验证前人研究结果的同时,对投射性空间关系的知觉表征过程进行了探讨,为投射性空间关系的表达过程提供了知觉依据和比较的基础。接下来在知觉表征的基础上逐步增加了不同的口语表达过程,包括实验2使用汉语空间方位词表达投射性空间关系的过程和实验3使用英语空间方位词表达投射性空间关系的过程,对研究提出的假设进行了验证。实验4在实验3的基础上通过使用人工方位词的方法平衡和控制了实验3中可能对因变量造成污染的因素,对被定位物体位于倾斜位置时投射性空间关系的表达过程进行了进一步验证。最后实验5通过给表达过程提供不同的提示线索研究了有提示线索存在时,表达投射性空间关系的过程有什么特点,以及这些因素对表达过程有那些影响。通过一系列研究得到如下结论: 1.投射性空间关系表达过程中,选择不同的表达投射性空间关系的空间方位词会影响表达的过程,不同的空间方位词与以人体为中心的知觉突显方向的匹配程度会影响口语编码过程,造成表达过程快慢的不同。 2.使用合成性空间词语表达倾斜位置的空间关系时采用的是从空间认知概念表征到合成性词语的直接映射方式,而不是合并规范轴轴向词的方式,表明二者之间存在直接对应关系。但在某些特殊情况下或空间语言形成的某个时期,会使用合并两个规范轴轴向词的方式,表明知觉突显方向在投射性空间关系的知觉和表达过程中占有更重要,重基础的位置。 3.空间词语的熟悉性会影响倾斜位置的表达过程,但并不是以促进典型倾斜位置效应的方式来完成的。
其他摘要It is easy to find that, in each language, the terms and phrases for the representation of spatial locating and orientation, and the ways for sharing spatial knowledge are very rich. The basic way of sharing spatial information is mapping our experience and actions with the environment by using terms and utterances that represent spatial relations. How to build the mapping relation among them and what factors affect the process of mapping are the questions need to be answered in this study. The whole course of expressing projective spatial relation includes the verbal expression and perception to the projective spatial relation. In experiment 1, the perceptual characteristics of perceiving the projective spatial relation was studied by analyzing the production latencies from the presentation of the stimulators in different directions (at 5 levels: 00, 22.50, 450, 67.50, and 900) to the onset of the corresponding buttons triggering on the keyboard, the study verifies the results of prior researches and revealed the foundation of expressing the projective spatial relation. In the experiment 2, and 3, the way and the role of the verbal expression were investigated. Subjects were asked to speak out the spatial relation between intended object and reference object by using verbal locative expressions. In experiment 2, Chinese was used as the verbal expression way, and in Experiment 3, English instead. Experiment 4 was similar as experiment 3, but time of voice key triggering was controlled and balanced among trials to verify the results of Experiment 3 further. Experiment 5 investigated the effect of pre-cue on the courses of expressing projective spatial relation. There were two kinds of clues, one was the spatial locative utterances, and the other was the perceptual coordinates framework, such as drawing a cross ”+” in a circle to imply four quadrants. The main conclusions of this research were as follows: 1. When speaking out a spatial relation, different sets of spatial terms, such as “left and right”, or “north and south”, affected the speed of verbal expression. Verbal coding process was affected by how well the perceptual salient direction matched with spatial terms, which made the speed of verbal expression different. 2. When using composite spatial terms to express diagonal directions, people tend to use direct mapping from spatial conceptual representation to composite spatial terms, rather than combining the two axes, which implied there existed direct one-on-one mapping between spatial conceptual representation and spatial terms. But during specific developing period, the way of combining two axes was employed as well for spatial expression, which meant perceptual salient directions played critical role in the process of perceiving and expressing projective spatial relations. 3. The process of verbal expression of the projective spatial relation was improved by the familiarity of spatial utterances, but this improvement was not the results of enhancement of the effect of prototypical diagonal direction.
页数101
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4450
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨群会. 投射性空间关系表达过程的研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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