3-5岁幼儿认知灵活性的发展
其他题名Development of Cognitive Flexibility in 3-to-5-year-olds
洪雷
学位类型博士
导师方格
2009-09-14
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词3-5岁幼儿 认知灵活性 工作记忆 抑制能力 言语标记 维度
摘要认知灵活性是指个体根据具体的情况从一种解决问题方法转换到另外一种方法的能力,是个体适应环境变化的一种重要能力。据认为认知灵活性是执行功能的三个主要成分之一,对儿童认知灵活性的发展研究已经成为当前国际认知发展领域的一个热门话题。研究者曾以演绎任务和归纳任务等不同的实验范式探查儿童认知灵活性的发展,并提出了各种不同的理论主张。但这些理论分别从外部课题任务条件或内部心理过程解释幼儿认知灵活性的发展机制,对儿童认知灵活性的发展过程的研究还不够系统、深入。为此,本研究以3-5岁幼儿为研究对象,通过系统地操纵和改变课题任务条件,简化实验程序,降低任务难度以探查幼儿认知灵活性的发展过程和特点,挖掘幼儿的认知潜力,揭示其发展机制和促进认知灵活性发展的内外部条件。所得研究结果不仅能在理论上加深对执行功能和其发展机制的认识,而且能在教育实践上为促进幼儿认知灵活性发展提供理论和方法上的指导。 本研究在演绎任务范式下,采用图片分类任务对幼儿做个别测查。研究内容包括刺激物属性的一维度、二维度转换,刺激物逐一、同时两种呈现方式,刺激物选自形状、颜色、数量和方位等不同概念范畴内的转换任务以及对刺激物特点的标记和不标记,从而揭示刺激物的不同维度数量、呈现方式、概念任务类型和语言标记对幼儿认知灵活性发展的影响。本研究还通过相关研究探查了幼儿的分类能力、工作记忆加工能力、抑制能力与幼儿认知灵活性的关系。 在本研究条件下,我们得到以下研究结果: (1) 3-5岁幼儿的认知灵活性呈年龄发展趋势,从刺激物的一维度规则转换发展到对刺激物的二维度规则转换。3岁幼儿认知灵活性刚刚开始发展,其成绩显著低于4岁和5岁成绩。在刺激物一维度转换条件下,仅在逐一呈现颜色任务上成绩较高,通过率为80%,在其他任务上的通过率都未超过60%。在刺激物二维转换条件下,幼儿的成绩更差。逐一呈现时,幼儿在各任务上的通过率都不超过50%。从3岁到4岁,幼儿的认知灵活性呈现快速发展趋势,而4岁组和5岁组幼儿认知灵活性水平差异不显著。在刺激物一维度转换条件下,4岁、5岁幼儿表现出较高的灵活性水平,各概念任务上的通过率都超过80%;在二维转换条件下,幼儿在各个任务上的通过率有所下降,但5岁幼儿在逐一呈现条件下的形状-颜色任务上保持了较高的灵活性 (90%),在其他两项任务 (形状-数量、形状-上下方位) 的通过率也都达到63%。 (2) 不同概念任务类型是影响幼儿认知灵活性水平的一个重要因素,其影响作用依任务的维度数量和被试年龄而变化。一维度转换任务中,3岁幼儿在不同概念任务上的成绩差异显著,表现出发展的不同步,而4岁和5岁幼儿在这些任务上的成绩差异不显著;在二维转换任务中,幼儿在4种概念任务上的成绩差异均显著。 (3) 刺激物的呈现方式是影响幼儿认知灵活性水平的一个重要因素,其影响作用依转换的维度数量和被试年龄而变化。在一维转换任务中,3岁幼儿在逐一呈现时的成绩优于同时呈现时的成绩,4岁和5岁儿童在两种呈现方式下的成绩差异不显著;在二维转换任务中,各年龄组幼儿均是逐一呈现时的成绩优于同时呈现条件时的成绩。 (4) 幼儿自己对刺激物的维度特征做语言标记能促进幼儿认知灵活性的发展,并且这种促进作用带有普遍性,不受维度数量、呈现方式和任务概念类型的影响。 (5) 3-5岁幼儿的认知灵活性水平既与任务的结构复杂性有关,也与个体的分类能力、工作记忆加工能力、抑制能力有关。; To test preschoolers’ development of cognitive flexibility--an ability to solve a problem in one way and to then switch solution strategies, and the mechanism involved in the development, 3-5-year-olds are asked to perform switching tasks in which the experimenter manipulates the way the stimuli are presented: consecutive or simultaneous; the way the switching happens: between dimensions or within a dimension; the conceptual domains involved: shape, color, number and direction; the specific labels used. The main results of this work are presented below: (1) 3-5-year-olds’ cognitive flexibility develops with age, yet its development is not of the same speed in extra-dimensional switch tasks and inter-dimensional reversal tasks. 3-year-olds manifest some cognitive flexibility, but their performance is significantly worse than that of 4- and 5-year-olds. For the 3-year-olds, in reversal tasks, although 80% of the children passed the post-switch phrase in color task; less then 60% children passed the post-switch phrase in shape, number and direction tasks. In extra-dimensional tasks, 3-year-olds performance is worse than that in the reversal tasks. Less than 50% of the children passed the tasks. Children’s cognitive flexibility develops fast from 3-year-olds to 4-year-olds. Both 4-year-olds and 5-year-olds demonstrate high flexibility without significant difference between them. (2) Children’s flexibility in the conceptual domains of shape, color, number and direction follows different developing patterns. In inter-dimensional reversal tasks, 3-year-olds’ performance is not the same in the 4 conceptual domains, but the difference among the domains is insignificant in 4-and-5-year-olds. In extra-dimensional switching tasks, children’s performance on the 4 domain tasks is significantly different from one another in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. (3) The way the stimuli are presented affects children’s development of cognitive flexibility. In inter-dimensional reversal tasks, 3-year-olds’ performance in consecutive presentation is significantly better than that in simultaneous presentation. 4- and 5-year-olds’ performance in the 2 presentations is not significantly different from each other. In extra-dimensional switch tasks, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds’ performance in the consecutive presentation is not significantly better than that in the simultaneous presentation (4) 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds’ self-issued labeling aids their performance on the switching tasks. Children’ performance in the labeling condition is significantly better than that of no labeling. (5) 3-5-year-olds’ cognitive flexibility is highly correlated with their working memory and inhibition. Children’ development of cognitive flexibility is a process that involves activation of working memory and inhibition, in which the complexity of the task also plays a role.
页数104
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4492
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
洪雷. 3-5岁幼儿认知灵活性的发展[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2009.
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