序列视觉信息整合的特性与机制
其他题名Characteristics and Mechanisms of Integrating Sequential Visual Information
任衍具
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2007-06-07
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词序列视觉信息 空白单元格定位 时空特性 信息表征 整合机制
摘要在视知觉研究领域,人们如何整合从一系列注视点中所获得的视觉信息,以保持整体性的场景知觉,是困扰研究者的一个重要科学问题。研究者们曾尝试从序列视觉信息整合的视角,来回答整体性的场景知觉问题。最近,研究者们假定,随着时间的延迟,保持在视觉短时记忆中的信息能够形成视觉表象进入视觉缓冲器,与当前知觉到的信息相整合,并对这种整合进行了初步研究。但是,在序列视觉信息整合的时空特性、信息表征和整合机制方面,还有一些问题亟待解决。 基于视觉表象与视知觉的相似性理论,本研究采用时间整合范式和空白单元格定位任务,旨在考察序列视觉信息(序列点阵)整合的时空特性、信息表征和整合机制。研究一通过考察刺激的编码时间对序列视觉信息整合绩效的影响,深入探讨序列视觉信息整合的时间特性。研究二通过考察序列视觉信息的空间特性改变对信息整合的影响,深入探讨序列视觉信息整合的空间特性。研究三采用行为实验和视线追踪技术,考察了视觉短时记忆中的信息表征和序列视觉信息的整合机制。本研究的主要发现可以概括为以下三点: 1. 在没有策略性指导语的情况下,人们仍然能够整合序列点阵的信息;延长点阵1的呈现时间会提高序列点阵整合的绩效,延长点阵2的呈现时间对整合绩效的影响不大;时间相关模型并不解释适合长ISI条件下的序列点阵整合现象。 2. 刺激复杂度既影响人们对序列点阵整合的总体绩效,也影响绩效达到渐近线水平所需要的ISI的值;当序列点阵的空间特性发生改变时,人们仍然能够整合序列点阵的信息;在ISI期间,点阵1的表象形成阶段和表象操纵阶段是相对独立的。 3. 在对序列点阵进行整合的过程中,人们表征了点阵1中的模式信息,点阵1中物体的拓扑性质对注视位置有一定影响;当点阵1中的圆点数目较少时,实验结果支持表象-知觉整合假说;当序列点阵中的圆点数目分布相对均衡或点阵1中的圆点数目较多时,实验结果支持转换-比较假说。 上述发现有助于加深人们对序列视觉信息整合过程的理解,具有重要的理论意义,研究成果对视觉界面的设计也具有明显的指导作用。
其他摘要One of the great puzzles in the psychology of visual perception is that the visual world appears to be a coherent whole despite our viewing it through temporally discontinuous series of eye fixations. The investigators attempted to explain this puzzle from the perspective of sequential visual information integration. In recent years, investigators hypothesized that information maintained in the visual short-term memory (VSTM) could become visual mental images gradually during time delay in visual buffer and integrated with information perceived currently. Some elementary studies had been carried out to investigate the integration between VSTM and visual percepts, but further research is required to account for several questions on the spatial-temporal characteristics, information representation and mechanism of integrating sequential visual information. Based on the theory of similarity between visual mental image and visual perception, this research (including three studies) employed the temporal integration paradigm and empty cell localization task to further explore the spatial-temporal characteristics, information representation and mechanism of integrating sequential visual information (sequential arrays). The purpose of study 1 was to further explore the temporal characteristics of sequential visual information integration by examining the effects of encoding time of sequential stimuli on the integration of sequential visual information. The purpose of study 2 was to further explore the spatial characteristics of sequential visual information integration by investigating the effects of spatial characteristics change on the integration of sequential visual information. The purpose of study 3 was to explore the information representation of information maintained in the VSTM and integration mechanism in the process of integrating sequential visual information by employing the behavioral experiments and eye tracking technology. The results indicated that: (1) Sequential arrays could be integrated without strategic instruction. Increasing the duration of the first array could cause improvement in performance and increasing the duration of the second array could not improve the performance. Temporal correlation model was not fit to explain the sequential array integration under long-ISI conditions. (2) Stimuli complexity influenced not only the overall performance of sequential arrays but also the values of ISI at asymptotic level of performance. Sequential arrays still could be integrated when the spatial characteristics of sequential arrays changed. During ISI, constructing and manipulating of visual mental image of array 1 were two separate processing phases. (3) During integrating sequential arrays, people represented the pattern constituted by the objects' image maintained in the VSTM and the topological characteristics of the objects' image had some impact on fixation location. The image-perception integration hypothesis was supported when the number of dots in array 1 was less than empty cells, and the convert-and-compare hypothesis was supported when the number of the dot in array 1 was equal to or more than empty cells. These findings not only contribute to make people understand the process of sequential visual information integration better, but also have significant practical application in the design of visual interface.
页数112
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4542
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
任衍具. 序列视觉信息整合的特性与机制[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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