PSYCH OpenIR  > 中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Alternative TitleThe Structural Model of Anxiety and its Validation in Adolescent Samples
Thesis Advisor施建农
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral心理研究所
Keyword焦虑结构 重要性 可控性 紧迫性
Abstract本研究首先根据焦虑作为主客体之间的关系而存在的本质,提出了焦虑结构因素的标准,即每一个因素反映的都必须是这种关系的某种性质,必须能同时沟通主客体两个方面。之后根据这个标准衡量了一些涉及焦虑结构的理论模型,从中总结出了三个符合标准的因素,即重要性、可控性和紧迫性。之后,本研究采用访谈、问卷、实验室实验、事件评定等多种方法,以验证这三个因素与焦虑之间的联系,并探索在决定焦虑水平时各因素之间相互作用的方式。结果表明: 1. 焦虑的结构中包含可控性、重要性和紧迫性三个因素的理论构念是合理的,各种研究方法以不同的强弱程度对此提供了支持。 2. 在上述理论构念的指导下,以和流行的综合性焦虑问卷完全不同的项目构建方法,编制了中学生一般性焦虑问卷。该问卷具有较为理想的信、效度指标,是研究中学生焦虑的一个有效工具。 3. 可控性和重要性是以其交互作用的方式来决定焦虑水平的。 4. 焦虑水平会随着重要性、紧迫性的上升而上升,而它和可控性之间的关系虽然十分直接和紧密,但两者的具体对应关系却可能极为复杂。不但可控性是通过和重要性的交互作用来决定焦虑水平的,而且在可控性极高或极低的情况下,重要性本身可能还会受到它的影响。最后乐观倾向和自我效能还对可控性和焦虑之间的关系有着显著的影响。 上述发现表明,将焦虑作为主客体之间的关系来对待和研究不仅是合理的,而且对于澄清焦虑结构很可能还是必须的。因为其他类型的情感同样是作为主客体之间的关系而存在的,故而本研究所提出并坚持的整体性研究取向,对其他类型情感的研究也具有重要的借鉴意义。最后,重要性和可控性的交互作用可能提示了一条调节焦虑水平的有效途径。
Other AbstractSince anxiety exists as a certain kind of relation between the subject and his stimuli, present study proposed the criterion that every one of the anxiety’s structural components had to manifest the properties of the relation, not the subject’s properties, and not the stimuli’s properties, too; and that every component must be a bridge from the subject to the object. Several structural models on anxiety were judged by the criterion, and three suited factors were drawn out, which were controllability, importance and urgency. Then through various methods of interview, questionnaire, laboratorial experiment, events graded, the research examined the relations between the three factors and normal anxiety, and explored the interaction of controllability, importance and urgency when they worked together. The results were as the following: 1. The hypothesis that controllability, importance and urgency were the structural components of normal anxiety sounds reasonable, which was supported in different degrees by the results of several secondary research with various methods. 2. With a totally different method of constructing items from the prevalent integrative anxiety inventory, an effective normal anxiety inventory of middle school students was developed based on this theoretical consideration. Reliability and validity research showed that the coefficient of homogeneity and test-retest reliability were high. The construct validity and criterion validity were good enough. The inventory was a useful scale to measure the normal anxiety for middle school students. 3. It’s through their interaction that controllability and importance effect on the level of anxiety which was produced by the relevant event. 4. Anxiety arises with the increasing of importance or urgency. Though there’s a very close connection between controllability and anxiety, the concrete situation is very complicated. Not only is the level of anxiety affected by the interaction of controllability and importance, but when controllability tends to be extremely high or extremely low, importance may also begin to vary with controllability. What’s more, dispositional optimism and self-efficacy still exert influences that cannot be ignored on the relationship between controllability and anxiety. All the results indicated that it was reasonable to regard and study anxiety as a kind of relation between the subject and his environment, and to some extent it’s even necessary if the intention was to clarify the structure of anxiety. Since all the other emotion also exists as a kind of relation between the subject and his stimuli, the wholeness principle which was first proposed and recommended in this study will be of great value to the related researchers. And the interaction between controllability and importance may suggest a valid coping strategy of anxiety.
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
范越阳. 焦虑的因素结构及其在中学生中的验证[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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