学习不良儿童的元认知偏差及矫正
其他题名Metacognitive Illusions and Remedy among Children with Learning Disabilities (LD)
侯瑞鹤
学位类型博士
导师俞国良
2007-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词学习不良 儿童 元认知偏差 矫正
摘要元认知偏差(metacognitive bias or metacognitive illusions)是与元认知判断准确性相对应的概念,本论文是指个体的学习判断(judgment of learning:JOL)和回忆成绩由于受某些线索的误导而产生的绝对差异。学习判断是元认知监测判断中的一种,是对当前已经学过的项目在以后回忆测验中成绩的预见性判断。产生机制和准确性是元认知判断研究中的两个核心问题。Koriat提出的线索模型是目前解释力较强的理论,然而,对于元认知判断过程中的精细问题仍需进一步探讨,并且无法解释个体差异。本研究从人们认知的局限性出发,采用容易产生元认知偏差的反向关联字对,考察元认知偏差的形成机制,在此过程中探索相对于一般儿童,学习不良儿童元认知偏差较大(元认知判断准确性较低)的深层原因,并在此基础上寻找矫正元认知偏差的方法,同时,通过补充和完善线索利用模型,初步构建解释学习不良儿童学习判断对线索的选择和利用理论框架。 本研究主要有以下发现: (1)儿童均对反向关联和低关联字对表现出较大的元认知偏差,相比较而言,学习不良儿童的元认知偏差更大。年级差异显著。 (2)学习不良儿童在即刻判断和延迟判断条件下均主要依据提取流畅性线索做JOL,而一般儿童在即刻判断条件下主要依赖加工流畅性,在延迟判断条件下主要依赖提取流畅性做JOL。相对而言,一般儿童在做JOL时,能够较灵活地依赖不同的线索。 (3)分析式线索和启发式线索处理均提高了元认知的相对准确性;只有分析式线索组一般儿童的元认知偏差矫正效果对新材料产生了迁移效应。
其他摘要Metacognitive illusions or metacognitive bias is a concept that is a homologous with metacognitve monitor accuracy. In the dissertation, metacognitive illusions mainly refers to the absolute differences between judgment of learning (JOL) and recall because individuals are misguided by some invalid cues or information. JOL is one kind of metacognitive judgments, which is the prediction about the future performance of learned materials. Its mechanism and accuracy are the key issues in the study of JOL. Cue-utilization framework proposed by Koriat (1997) summarized the previous findings and provided a significant advance in understanding how people make JOL. However, the model is not able to explain individual differences in the accuracy of JOL. From the perspective of people’s cognitive bound, our study use posterior associative word pairs easy to produce metacognitive bias to explore the deeper psychological mechanism of metacontive bias. Moreover, we plan to investigate the cause to result in higher metacognitive illusions of children with LD. Based on these, the study tries to look for the method of mending metacognitive illusions. At the same time, we will summarize the findings of this study and previous literatures, and propose a revesied theory for explaining children’s with LD cue selection and utilization according to Koriat’s cue-utilization model. The results of the present study indicated that: (1) Children showed stable metacognitive illusions for the weak associative and posterior associative word pairs, it was not true for strong associative word pairs. It was higher metacognitive illusions for children with LD than normal children. And it was significant grade differences for metacognitive illusions. A priori associative strength exerted a weaker effect on JOL than it did on recall. (2) Children with LD mainly utilized retrieval fluency to make JOL across immediate and delay conditions. However, for normal children, it showed some distinction between encoding fluency and retrieval fluency as potential cues for JOL across immediate and delay conditions. Obviously, children with LD lacked certain flexibility for cue selection and utilization. (3)When word pairs were new list, it showed higher metacognitve transfer effects for analytic inferential group than heuristic inferential group for normal children in the second block. And metacognitive relative accuracy got increased for both children with and without LD across the experimental conditions. However, it was significantly improved only for normal children in analytic inferential group.
页数124
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4558
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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GB/T 7714
侯瑞鹤. 学习不良儿童的元认知偏差及矫正[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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