非言语学习不良青少年空间关系推理及其影响因素研究
其他题名A Study on Abilities of Reasoning about Spatial Relations and its Affect Mechanism in Adolescents with Nonverbal Learning Disabililties
姜兆萍
学位类型博士
导师俞国良
2007-05-28
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词非言语学习不良 青少年 空间关系推理 工作记忆 双任务 推理策略
摘要非言语学习不良(nonverbal learning disabilities)个体主要存在视空组织能力缺陷,而具有较强的机械言语能力,但目前对NLD青少年的高级认知过程,如空间关系推理能力的研究尚相对缺乏。本研究选取了三组被试:非言语学习不良(简称NLD)、言语学习不良(简称VLD)和一般青少年(控制组,简称C)。重点考查了在图形和文字两种刺激材料下,NLD青少年的空间和非空间关系推理能力和工作记忆的特点,并以双任务实验范式探讨了工作记忆与推理能力之间的关系,试图揭示工作记忆对推理能力的影响机制,以及NLD青少年空间关系推理能力存在缺陷的原因。最后,考察了三组青少年推理策略的使用情况。研究结果表明: (1) NLD青少年的非空间关系推理能力发展良好,而空间关系推理能力显著低于一般青少年,他们在空间关系和非空间关系推理能力上存在分离现象,非空间关系推理能力好于空间关系推理能力。VLD青少年除图形非空间关系推理能力发展良好外,其他三类推理能力都较差。 (2) 不同推理任务中,四类推理题型(有确定答案双模题、无确定答案双模题、有无效前提单模题和没有无效前提单模题)成绩差异不同。在图形和言语空间关系推理中,四类题型难易程度比较符合心理模型理论的解释;在言语非空间关系推理任务中,四类题型难易程度符合逻辑规则理论的解释。 (3)NLD青少年的视觉工作记忆发展良好,而空间工作记忆显著低于一般青少年,即视觉工作记忆优于空间工作记忆,二者表现为分离的现象。VLD青少年仅在中央执行系统方面记忆成绩显著低于一般青少年,其他三类工作记忆(语音环、视觉工作记忆和空间工作记忆)成绩与NLD和一般青少年没有显著差异。 (4) 空间工作记忆主要参与空间关系推理任务,而对于非空间关系推理任务的影响较少;视觉工作记忆对言语非空间关系推理任务的影响较少,而主要影响空间关系推理和图形非空间关系推理任务,在图形非空间关系推理过程中的卷入程度最高;中央执行系统对图形空间、图形非空间、言语空间和言语非空间关系四种推理任务都有影响;语音环在四种推理任务中的作用有待考证。 (5) 空间工作记忆能力缺陷是造成NLD青少年空间关系推理能力差的主要原因,而对于VLD青少年,中央执行系统缺陷是影响其推理能力的主要原因。 (6) NLD、VLD和一般青少年都可以根据推理任务材料和类型的不同采用多种策略解决问题。NLD、VLD和一般青少年解决空间关系和非空间关系推理任务所采用的策略没有差异。对于图形和言语空间关系推理任务多采用建构心理模型的策略,而对于言语非空间关系推理任务基本采用逻辑规则策略。但是三组被试推理策略使用的有效性方面是存在显著差异的。
其他摘要It has reported that individuals with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have deficits in visual-spatial organization and strengths in rote language abilities. At present, there are few studies on higher order cognitive abilities of adolescents with NLD, such as the reasoning about spatial relations. The study sampled three groups: a normal group (a control group, C), a nonverbal learning disabilities group (NLD), and a verbal learning disabilities group (VLD). The aim of this study was to examine spatial and nonspatial relation reasoning abilities in adolescents with NLD under figure and word conditions, and assessed the relative involvement of different working memory components in four types of reasoning tasks: reasoning about figure-spatial, figure-nonspatial, verbal-spatial, and verbal-nonspatial relations. Using the double-tasks methodology, visual, spatial, central-executive, and phonological loads were realized. We tried to find how working memory components impact on adolescents with NLD spatial and nonspatial reasoning. The main results of present research are as follows. (1) The NLD group didn’t differ from normal group on reasoning about figure-nonspatial relations. The NLD group scored lower than the C group in spatial problems. So, adolescents with NLD showed a dissociation between spatial and non-spatial relation reasoning. They scored higher in non-spatial problems than in spatial ones. Adolescents with VLD developed well in reasoning about figure-nonspatial relations, but showed deficits in other three tasks. (2) For each reasoning task, the difficult of four types of reasoning problem had different changing trend. For figure and verbal spatial problems, mental model approach can interpret performance of the four problems well. For verbal nonspatial problems, a logical rule approach can interpret performance of the four problems well. (3) Adolescents with NLD did not differ from adolescents with VLD and normal adolescents in phonological, central-executive, and visual dual tasks. But the NLD group had lower performance than the other two groups in spatial dual task. The results showed a dissociation between visual and spatial working memory in NLD group. The VLD group only experienced deficits in central-executive subsystem. (4) The studies found that spatial reasoning mainly loaded spatial working memory, whist the involvement of spatial resources in nonspatial reasoning was little. Visual working memory mainly involved in reasoning about spatial and figure-nonspatial relations, especially in figure-nonspatial problems, and had few impacts on verbal-nonspatial reasoning. Central executive system was involved in all reasoning tasks. The role of phonological loop in the reasoning tasks required further explored. (5) According to the findings, we concluded that the deficits in spatial working memory resulted in poor spatial reasoning abilities for teenagers with NLD, whist because of the limited central executive capability, teenagers with VLD showed poor reasoning abilities. (6) The three groups can used multiple strategies during the reasoning process. They didn’t differ from each other in reasoning strategies. They all used mental model strategy to solve figure and verbal spatial problems, and used logic rule strategy to solve verbal nonspatial problems.
页数115
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4560
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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姜兆萍. 非言语学习不良青少年空间关系推理及其影响因素研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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