亲子依恋对大学生人际关系影响的性别效应
其他题名Gender Effects: the Influences of Parent-child Attachment on College Students’ of Interpersonal Relationships
沈烈荣
学位类型博士
导师刘华山
2008-06-05
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词亲子依恋 人际关系 性别关系效应 大学生
摘要亲子依恋是指父母与子女之间持续而富有意义的情感纽带,对个体人际关系发展具有重要的影响。本研究分别采用相关研究方法和依恋安全记忆激活实验方法,从大学生亲子依恋表征本身的性别差异出发,以不同关系对象依恋表征中的“性别关系”为核心,重点考察了亲子依恋对大学生亲密关系表征、一般依恋表征以及因人际关系缺乏产生的感情和社会孤独影响的性别差异问题。本研究围绕“性别关系效应”的基本假设是:大学生人际交往中的“同性”关系表征更多受到“同性”亲子依恋的影响;而“异性”关系表征更多受到“异性”亲子依恋的影响。主要研究发现可以概括为以下几个方面: 1. 在大学生的亲子依恋表征上,分别来自父亲和母亲的依恋表征为弱相关;在子代性别差异上,“父子”依恋安全性显著低于“父女”依恋安全性;在亲代性别差异上,“父子”依恋安全性显著低于“母子”依恋安全性;结果在一定程度上体现为“异性关系”的亲子依恋安全性高于“同性关系”。 2. 亲子依恋表征与大学生亲密关系依恋焦虑的相关分析结果显示,“异性关系”的亲子依恋表征对大学生亲密关系(包括同性和异性亲密关系)依恋焦虑具有显著的预测作用。 3. 在亲子依恋表征对大学生亲密关系(包括同性和异性亲密关系)依恋回避的预测作用上显示出明显的“性别关系效应”:“同性关系”的亲子依恋安全性越低,则意味着在“同性关系”的朋友(伙伴)交往中依恋回避倾向越明显;“异性关系”的亲子依恋安全性越低,则意味着在“异性关系”的亲密交往中回避倾向越明显。 4. 亲子依恋安全记忆激活对大学生一般依恋表征影响的“性别关系效应”显著:来自父亲(而不是母亲)的依恋安全记忆激活能够显著提高大学生对“一般男性”依恋表征的自我模型,而来自母亲(而不是父亲)的依恋安全记忆激活能够显著提高大学生对“一般女性”依恋表征的他人模型。 5. 来自父亲(而不是母亲)的依恋表征能够显著预测男性大学生因缺乏异性亲密关系而产生的感情孤独,同时显著预测男性大学生因缺乏同伴友谊而产生的社会孤独。对女性大学生而言,来自父亲(而不是母亲)的依恋表征能够显著预测女性大学生的感情孤独,来自母亲(而不是父亲)的依恋表征能够显著预测她们的社会孤独。来自父亲(而不是母亲)的依恋安全记忆激活能够显著降低男性大学生的社会孤独水平。 上述结果表明,在亲子依恋对大学生人际关系表征的影响上,“性别关系效应”是明显存在的,主要表现在亲子依恋表征对大学生亲密关系“回避”倾向的预测作用以及亲子依恋记忆激活对大学生一般依恋表征的影响这两个方面;在亲子依恋对大学生因人际关系缺乏而产生的感情和社会孤独的影响上,“性别关系效应”也有一定的体现。这在一定程度上揭示了不同关系对象依恋表征之间的内在一致性,并为亲密关系研究领域中针对性别差异问题的分析提供了一个比较有效的分析模型。但研究同时也发现,“性别关系效应”并没有在所有方面得到完整一致的体现,显示了在亲密关系研究领域中性别差异问题本身的复杂性。
其他摘要Parent-child attachment refers to the emotional bond that forms between parent and child, which has great influences on the child’s interpersonal development. Present study applied both correlation method and secure attachment memory activation method to investigate the “gender relation effects” of parent-child attachment’s influences on college students’ close relationships, general attachment representation, and emotion and social loneliness. The basic hypotheses on “gender relation” were set as: “same-sex” parent-child attachment has more influences on college students’ “same-sex” interpersonal relationships, while “opposite-sex” parent-child attachment has more influences on college students’ “opposite-sex” interpersonal relationships. Major findings includes: 1. There was weak correlation of attachment security between father-child and mother-child relationships. The findings indicated that, among college students, the security of “opposite-sex” parent-child attachment representation is higher to some extent than that of “same-sex” parent-child attachment representation. 2. There were significant correlations between parent-child attachment and college students’ attachment anxiety in close relationships. Major findings indicated that “opposite-sex” parent-child attachment security negatively predicts college students’ attachment anxiety in both “same-sex” and “opposite-sex” close relationships. 3. Gender relation effects were significant in the correlations between parent-child attachment and college students’ level of avoidant attachment representation. “Same-sex” parent-child attachment security positively predicted avoidant attachment level in college students’ “same-sex” close relationships, while “opposite-sex” parent-child attachment security positively predicted avoidant attachment level in “opposite-sex” close relationships. 4. Parent-child attachment security memory activation had significant influences on college students’ general attachment representation, in which gender relation effects indicated that: the memory activation of father-child attachment security significantly increases participants’ security of self-model in general attachment representation to “male others”; while the memory activation of mother-child attachment security significantly increase participants’ security of others-model in general attachment representation to “female others”. 5. For male college students, father-son attachment security negatively predicted their emotion and social loneliness. For female college students, father-daughter attachment security negatively predicted their emotion loneliness, while mother-daughter attachment security negatively predicted their social loneliness. Attachment security memory activation had significant influences on college students’ social loneliness, in which gender relation effects was confirmed in that only father-child attachment security memory activation significantly decreased male participants’ level of social loneliness. The results indicated that gender relation effects are significant in the influences of parent-child attachment on college students’ interpersonal relationship representations, especially when the level of avoidant of attachment in college students’ close relationships was predicted by parent-child attachment representation, and when the memory activation of parent-child attachment influenced college students’ general attachment representation. The present study confirmed to some extent that gender relation consistency exists in attachment representations among different interpersonal relations, and serves as a new model for analysis of gender differences in the research fields. In the present study, however, gender relation effects were not confirmed in all the interpersonal relationship representations, which indicated the complexity in the problems of gender differences in the research fields of close relationships.
页数136
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4562
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
沈烈荣. 亲子依恋对大学生人际关系影响的性别效应[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
条目包含的文件
文件名称/大小 文献类型 版本类型 开放类型 使用许可
10001_20041801250301(741KB) 限制开放--浏览 请求全文
个性服务
推荐该条目
保存到收藏夹
查看访问统计
导出为Endnote文件
谷歌学术
谷歌学术中相似的文章
[沈烈荣]的文章
百度学术
百度学术中相似的文章
[沈烈荣]的文章
必应学术
必应学术中相似的文章
[沈烈荣]的文章
相关权益政策
暂无数据
收藏/分享
文件名: 10001_200418012503016沈烈荣_paper.pdf
格式: Adobe PDF
此文件暂不支持浏览
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 

除非特别说明,本系统中所有内容都受版权保护,并保留所有权利。