社会发展与中国人人格变迁——控制测验理论与工具的变异后不同时期的中国人人格差异研究
周明洁
学位类型博士
导师张建新
2007-06-14
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词社会发展 人格 CPAI 项目反应理论 经典测验理论 项目功能差异
摘要在非西方社会,在有关社会发展与人格变迁的研究将社会发展集中在经济发展和社会现代化上。本研究利用本土化的人格工具CPAI,对中国社会发展与中国人群体人格特征模式之间的关系进行了探讨,同时探讨了测量工具以及运用不同的测验理论与对测验结果的影响。 研究一探讨了中国社会发展时间进程和城市现代化水平差异与中国人群体人格特征模式之间的关系。但是,研究一是直接将不同时期的中国人的人格测验分数进行比较,并没有控制测验工具本身所带来的差异的对研究结果的影响,即没有考虑到测验工具对来自不同时期的被试的等值性。在研究二中我们探讨了CPAI对不同时期的被试进行测量时的等值性。我们利用经典测验理论与项目反应理论的方法分别对CPAI的项目功能差异(DIF)情况进行了探测,研究结果揭示,CPAI某些项目在对不同时期的中国人进行测量的不具等值性,即存在项目功能差异。在研究三中,为了确保测验工具对不同时期的中国人被试具有等值性,我们仅保留DIF效果值较小的项目,并且运用普遍认为能对人格特征进行更准确的估计的项目反应理论来估计被试的人格特质分数。进一步利用代群分析的方法分析了中国人人格变迁的模式。研究四的目的在于通过因素分析的方法探讨研究二探测出来的DIF项目所揭示的社会发展与人格变迁之间的关系。 总结上述四个研究的结果,我们可以得出如下结论:(1)CPAI所包含的人格特质可以分为两类,第一类人格特质不随社会发展的时间与空间分布以及年龄、代群发生明显的变化,这些人格特质包含:理智-情感、开拓性、责任感、自卑-自信、乐-悲观、面子、亲情、防御性(阿Q精神)、宽容-刻薄;第二类人格特质随着社会发展、年龄与代群三个纵向变量的发生一致性变化或者交互变化,这些人格特质包含:领导性、自我-社会取向、老实-圆滑、传统-现代性、和谐性、人情、严谨性、外向性、情绪性、务实性、外控性、节俭性、纪律性;同时,功能差异项目构成的问卷揭示出五个受社会环境影响很大的心理特征,它们分别是:犬儒-现实主义的生活态度、心理适应性、外圆内方的应对风格、自我效能感、个体主义的价值观。(2)总的来说,92年的中国人更多地体现出传统或计划经济体制下的行为模式,但经过中国社会10年快速的发展,中国人更多地摆脱了传统的一面,而展露出与市场经济相适应的个性张扬的一面。(3)项目反应理论与经典测验理论在探测项目功能差异与估计人格特质分数上的结果均具有可比性,但是一般认为,项目反应理论比经典测验理论的方法更有效、更准确地衡量出被试的心理特征水平。(4)通过项目功能差异的探测,证明CPAI具有较好的项目效度,同时,对有功能差异的项目的分析发现,在CPAI量表已有的题库中,开发一套测量生活态度、应对方式、价值观等心理特征的亚量表是可能的。 本研究依据人格特征的稳定与变化,将CPAI测得的心理特征和人格特质分成3类,并且进一步验证了中国人人格结构的六因素假设,具有一定的理论意义;同时,随着社会发展与人格变迁之间的关系的揭示,为中国人该以怎样的行为模式来应对中国社会的快速发展这一问题提供启示,具有重要的现实意义。在研究中,我们也提供了在CPAI量表已有的项目中开发一套亚人格量表的思路与可能性,具有一定的实践价值;此外,研究中不同测验理论以及代群分析的应用也体现了方法学上的创新性。; In non-western society,researches on social development and personality change focused on economic development and social modernization. The present study is aimed at exploring the relationship between the social transformation and personality changes of Chinese people by using so-called indigenous personality measurement of CPAI (Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory). Meanwhile, the influence of CPAI measurement itself and measurement theory were also taken into consideration. In study 1, two sets of CPAI data collected in a 10 year interval were analyzed. At the same time, the CPAI-2 data was analyzed in terms of modernization level of various cities from which the data were collected. However, this study didn’t consider the importance of “equivalence” of the measurement, CPAI. In study 2, we detected DIF (Differential item functioning) across the different period groups to confirm if CPAI was equal to people in different period. In this process, both CTT and IRT method were used. The outcome reminded us that there were some DIF items. In study 3, to make sure that the personality measurement is fair to people in different period, we only saved those items whose DIF effect size lower than 0.01, and used IRT method to estimate test-taker’s personality. Then, cohort analysis was used to explore the pattern of personality change of Chinese people. In study 4, we factor-analyzed the DIF items to find the relation between social transformation and the latent personality variable which were composed of DIF items. From these 4 studies, we could got the following conclusions: (1) The CPAI 22 traits could be divided into two categories, with the changing of age, period and cohort, type I traits didn’t change, they were Logical vs Affective Orientation, Enterprise, Responsibility, Inferiority vs Self-Acceptance, Optimism vs Pessimism, Face, Family, Defensive, Graciousness vs Meanness; While with the changing of age, period and cohort, type II traits changed, they were Leadership, Self vs. Social Orientation, Veraciousness vs Slickness, Traditionalism vs Modernity, Harmony, Renqing, Meticulousness, Extraversion vs Introversion, Emotionality, Practical Mindedness, Internal vs External Locus of Control, Thrift vs Extravagance, Discipline. Meanwhile DIF items measured 5 psychologycial characteristics which changed greatly with the changing of age, period and cohort, they were Life attitude of Cynicism-realism, Psychological maladjustment, Coping style of Waiyuanneifang, Self-efficacy, the value of Individualism. (2) In sum, Chinese people in 1992 were more traditional than those in 2001, and with the 10-year of rapid development, according to the market economy’s needs, Chinese people became more individualism. (3) The DIF method of CTT and IRT were comparable. But, in generally, IRT method was more accurate and valid in detecting DIF as were as estimating personality. (4) The DIF outcomes showed that CPAI had good item validity. Meanwhile, it’s possible to develop a subscale by using CPAI items to assess some psychological characteristics. In this current study, according to their stability and variability, we could divided personality traits and psychological characteristics into 3 categories, and the outcome supported the hypothesis of “Six Factor Model”, these foundings were of some theoretic meanings. Meanwhile, as the relation between social development and personality change being explored, it certain help Chinese people cope with the rapid changing society. In this study, we also found that it’s possible to develop a subscale by using CPAI items to assess obverse personality traits and it had some practical use. Furthermore, the use of different measurement theory and cohort analysis embodied some innovation in methodology.
页数197
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4580
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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周明洁. 社会发展与中国人人格变迁——控制测验理论与工具的变异后不同时期的中国人人格差异研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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