情绪干扰下焦虑水平对执行抑制的影响机制——事件相关电位研究
其他题名Unpredictable Emotional Distraction Modulated by Anxiety in Inhibition Stage: ERP Studies
白露
学位类型硕士
导师罗跃嘉
2008-01-08
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词焦虑 情绪 执行抑制 ERP
摘要McNaughton 和Gray在2000年提出的反应抑制模型指出焦虑的形成与个体的过度抑制密切相关,因此对抑制机制的研究有助于我们更好的了解焦虑症。本研究就此进行了两项ERP实验来探讨情绪干扰下焦虑水平对执行抑制的影响机制。首先在前期的准备工作中,我们建立了中国情绪图片库系统作为后续实验的材料。之后,通过状态-特质焦虑问卷调查,筛选出高和低特质焦虑被试参加实验。在第一个ERP实验中,我们采用了一个调整的oddball任务,插入作为新异刺激的正、中、负性图片进行干扰,比较这三种情绪图片诱发的ERP之间的差异。在第二个ERP实验中采用类似的范式,但是加大了任务难度,来探讨焦虑水平与情绪因素在抑制层面上的相互影响作用。实验结果如下: 1.筛选出852幅图片组成中国情绪图片系统CAPS(Chinese Affective Picture System),并从三个维度进行标准化评定。评分结果显示,唤醒度评分结果的一致性最高,愉悦度和优势度评分结果的标准差大于唤醒度的评分结果。散点图显示,CAPS在愉悦度和唤醒度上评分分布较为广泛。 2.不论是高焦虑还是低焦虑水平被试,在三类情绪图片中,负性图片诱发的N2波幅值最大,这反映了被试对负性信息更为警觉。而负性图片诱发的P3波幅值最小,这反映了负性情绪对被试造成的干扰更大,被试需要更为主动的对其进行抑制。被试对负性刺激的敏感性可以解释为这一类刺激与个体生存具有更加密切和紧迫的关系。 3.当任务难度增大时,高低焦虑被试负性图片诱发的P3波幅均比中性图片小。并且在高焦虑被试中,正性图片诱发的P3波幅也小于中性图片,在低焦虑被试中,这种现象则未被观察到。这说明与低焦虑被试相比,高焦虑被试对正性图片采取了和负性图片相同的抑制策略,存在着过度抑制的倾向。 4.偶极子溯源分析结果说明,扣带回与执行抑制机能密切相关,在认知与情绪的交互作用中起着重要的作用。 综上所述,在抑制层面上,高和低焦虑个体均对负性情绪信息高度敏感。但是当认知任务难度增大个体的认知资源不足时,高焦虑个体表现出对普遍情绪性信息的高度敏感,证实了高焦虑个体存在着过度抑制的倾向。
其他摘要Behavioral inhibition model suggests the generation of anxiety is related with over-inhibition. For knowing about anxiety better, we used event-related potential (ERP) technique to explore the underlying mechanism of executive inhibition under the emotional distracter in high and low trait-anxious groups. Firstly, we set up the Chinese affective picture system (CAPS) as the stimuli of subsequent experiments. Secondly, we screened the high and low trait-anxious participants using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In the first ERP study, a modified oddball paradigm was used with the positive, neutral and negative pictures as novel stimuli and the potentials evoked by three types pictures were analyzed. In the second ERP study, the same paradigm with higher task load was employed to examine the interaction of anxious level and emotion. Main results as follows: 1. CAPS consisted of 852 pictures was assessed via three dimensionalities, valence, arousal and dominance. The standard deviation of scores on valence and dominance was more than the standard deviation of scores on dimension of arousal. Scatter plot showed that the score distributing on the dimension of valence and arousal was wide in CAPS. 2. In both high and low trait-anxiety groups, the amplitudes of N2 and P3 of negative pictures were greater and smaller respectively as compared with neutral and positive pictures, which suggested all participants no matter what anxious level required more inhibition processing to negative information than others. 3. With increasing of task load, the P3 amplitudes of negative pictures in high anxious group were reduced relative to neutral pictures. In addition, in high anxious group, the P3 amplitudes of positive pictures had the same changes as those of negative ones. Whereas, the reduced P3 of positive pictures were not observed in low anxious group. The results showed the high anxious participants employed the same inhibitory strategy to the positive distracter as the negative distracter, which possibly the over-inhibition processing was involved in this group. 4. Dipole source analysis found cingulate may be involved in executive inhibition processing. In sum, as for the inhibition, high and low anxious group both is sensitive to negative information. However, in the high load situation, due to the shortness of cognitive resources, the high anxious individual represents the general sensitivity to all emotional information. These results gave the electrophysiological evidence for over-inhibition in high trait-anxiety group.
页数67
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4588
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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白露. 情绪干扰下焦虑水平对执行抑制的影响机制——事件相关电位研究[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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