3-7岁儿童对情景化习俗道义情境中社会行为的认知发展
其他题名Development of 3-7-Year-old Children’s understanding about social behaviors in contextually conventional deontic contexts
王霏
学位类型硕士
导师朱莉琪
2007-06-08
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点北京
学位专业发展与教育心理学
关键词道义规则 心理理论 儿童发展 行为预测 批评判断
摘要儿童的心理理论和对道义规则的认知是儿童社会认知发展研究的前沿课题。结合这两个领域的研究可以更深入地揭示儿童的社会认知。本研究以3、5和7岁正常儿童为被试,采用儿童熟悉的发生在幼儿园的故事为实验材料,以图片形式呈现,重点讨论:3-7岁儿童对情景化习俗道义规则确立或变更的认知发展,对道义规则和心理状态共同影响社会行为的认知发展以及整合道义规则和心理状态两方面信息对违规行为评价的发展。 主要研究结果如下: ①相对于权威的愿望,3-7儿童都能认识到权威正式宣布使得新的道义规则成立,部分儿童仍受到额外因素的影响。 ②在突出呈现道义规则情境中,儿童认识到行为者“应该”怎么做与其“会”这么做之间的联系是逐渐发展的过程。儿童的认识容易受到额外因素的影响。 ③在道义情景中,儿童根据行为者的信念状态预测其行为的判断随着年龄的增长而逐渐增多。与经典的错误信念任务相比,道义情景比自然情景更强烈的影响到儿童对行为的推断。 ④三组儿童已认识到道义规则只有通过行为者主观愿望的中介作用才能影响其行为。道义规则仍影响三组儿童的判断。 ⑤在对违规行为进行评价时,认识到违规行为背后的心理因素而做出区分评价的儿童随年龄的增长而增多
其他摘要Children’s understanding of deontic rules and theory of mind (ToM) were the two research domains for children’s social cognition. It was significant for understanding children’s social cognition to combine the researches in the two domains. Children at 3, 5 and 7years were required to answer three questions according to the stories which happened in children’s familiar context. The three questions were designed to address the three problems:⑴Development of 3-7-Year-old children’s understanding about how the deontic rules were enacted or changed.⑵ Development of 3-7-Year-old children’s understanding about that the deontic rules and the actor’s mental states could impact on his behaviors.⑶ Development of 3-7-Year-old children’s capacity to integrate the deontic rules and mental state to evaluate the actor’s behavior. The results showed that: ① The 3-7-Year-old children had known that deontic rules were established by the authority’s speech act. But there were still some irrelevant factors which influenced the children’s judgments, such as the authority’s desire. ② The children gradually recognized the relationship between actors should do something and they will do the same thing. 3-year-old children could recognize such relationship in a way, but their predictions were usually influenced by some irrelevant factors. The children at 5 and 7 years old understood this relationship more steady. ③ In deontic context, more and more children predicted the actors’ behaviors according to the actors’ mental states as they grown up. The ratio that the 3-7-Year-old children predicted the actors’ behavior according to their false belief about the deontic rules was smaller in deontic context compared with the children’s performance in traditional false belief task. This maybe indicated that the deontic context influenced the children’s inference stronger than the physical context. ④ When they could get the actors’ desires and the deontic rules, all the children could predict the actors’ behaviors according to their desires, but not the deontic rules. It meant that all the children could understand that the actors’ desire mediated between the deontic rules and their behaviors. But when the actors wanted to transgress the deontic rules, all the children’s predications became less accurate. ⑤ When they assigned criticism, more and more children could discriminate different behaviors as a result of diverse mental states although they all transgressed the deontic rules. But the most part of children overweighed the deontic rules but overlooked the actors’ mental state about the deontic rules; their criticism to behaviors which transgressed the deontic rules just differ in quantity according to diverse mental states, that is: if the actors known the rules or want to transgress the rules, then punished more, and if the actors didn’t know the rules or transgress the rules accidentally, then punished a little.
学科领域发展心理学
页数76
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4594
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
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王霏. 3-7岁儿童对情景化习俗道义情境中社会行为的认知发展[D]. 北京. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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