序列学习场景条件下学习序列与空间记忆内在参照系的建立
其他题名Intrinsic Frames of Reference and Learning Sequence in Spatial Memory Acquired from Sequentially Learning a Layout
刘仙芸
学位类型博士
导师牟炜民
2008-05-30
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词序列学习场景 学习序列 空间记忆 内在参照系
摘要在空间记忆研究领域,先前的研究发现学习序列和方位判断时的朝向特异性有高度的相关。这提示学习序列可能是建立空间记忆的参照系的决定因素。并且以往关于空间记忆内在参照系的研究多集中在同时呈现场景条件下,单一视点或多视点学习之后,空间记忆内在参照系如何建立的问题上。本研究根据Mou等人提出的空间记忆的内在参照系理论,采用了基于整组被试的实验设计,系统地考察了序列学习场景中,学习序列与空间记忆内在参照系建立之间的因果关系。综合本研究九个实验的结果,可以得出以下主要结论: 一、序列学习场景中,学习序列不能够决定空间记忆内在参照系建立,学习序列是空间记忆内在参照系建立之后的一种编码和加工过程。先建立的场景内在参照系决定了学习序列以何种方式进行。 二、学习序列随机条件下,当场景结构在整个学习过程中一直呈现或者在学习最初短暂呈现然后消失,被试都会选择场景的对称轴方向建立空间记忆内在参照系来表征场景;当场景结构在学习结束后呈现或者没有场景结构呈现情况,被试都会选择观察视点方向建立空间记忆的内在参照系来表征场景。 三、学习序列沿固定方向条件下,无论有场景结构呈现还是没有场景结构呈现,被试都会选择观察视点方向作为空间记忆内在参照系方向来表征场景。 四、在走动学习场景的过程中,不论有场景结构呈现还是没有场景结构呈现,被试都会沿着最初的观察视点方向建立空间记忆内在参照系来表征场景。 五、空间记忆的内在参照系是在场景学习最初建立起来的,而不是在学习过程中逐渐建立起来的。并且内在参照系一旦建立起来,就不能够被刷新。 本研究的结果对于理解内在参照系所表征的空间信息的本质有非常重要的理论意义,同时也为空间场景中信息整合等问题提供了指导和借鉴。本研究也验证和发展了McNamara,Mou 和Shelton 等人所提出的空间记忆的内在参照系表征理论。
其他摘要Previous studies showed that preferred directions in pointing judgments (e.g. imagine you are standing at X, facing Y, please point to Z) were consistent with the sequence participants used to learn locations of objects suggesting that the learning sequence may determine the intrinsic frames of reference in spatial memory. Numerous studies pay excessive attention to the selection of intrinsic frames of reference in spatial memory acquired from viewing an entire layout simultaneously. This research focused on the relationship between the learning sequence and the spatial reference direction in sequentially learning a layout based on the theory of intrinsic reference system. The results indicated that: 1. The intrinsic frame of reference used to specify objects’ locations in memory could not be determined by learning sequence. The learning sequence reflected the encoding of interobject spatial relations aligned with the intrinsic reference directions . 2. when the objects presented sequentially in a random order and the layout geometry structure was either all along or briefly, the preferred heading was determined by the symmetric axis. when the objects presented sequentially in a random order and the layout geometry structure was either not indicated or briefly presented after study, the preferred heading was determined by learning viewpoint. 3. When the objects were presented sequentially along a certain direction, whether the layout geometry structure displayed or not, the effect of the learning viewpoint on selection of intrinsic axis was observed. 4. When participants learned a layout during locomotion, whether the layout geometry structure displayed or not, the initial study perspective was used as a reference direction in memory. 5. Spatial reference direction was determined at the very beginning of learning objects’ locations. Spatial reference direction could not be changed once it had been choosed. These results not only contribute to specify in greater detail the nature of these spatial representations but also extend the intrinsic model of spatial memory.
页数107
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4606
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘仙芸. 序列学习场景条件下学习序列与空间记忆内在参照系的建立[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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