多视点学习条件下场景内在参照系的建立
其他题名Intrinsic Frames of Reference in Spatial Memory Acquired from Two Oblique Viewpoints
赵民涛
学位类型博士
导师牟炜民
2007-06-07
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词朝向特异性 对正效应 内在参照系 观察视点 空间表征
摘要自Evans和Pezdek(1980)研究中提出空间表征的朝向属性以来,多视点学习条件下场景空间关系如何表征,迄今没有得到完整的回答。在以往近30年的研究中,对空间表征的考察过多的集中在了对正效应是否存在的问题上。直到最近研究者才开始从空间参照系的角度入手,在控制学习时间和场景熟悉性的条件下,从多个朝向来系统考察空间表征的朝向特异性。 本研究根据Mou,McNamara及其同事所提出的内在参照系理论,采用了基于被试的实验设计,在排除以往研究中场景结构、学习时间以及学习方向等影响因素的条件下,考察了多视点学习条件下场景内在参照系的建立机制。并在此基础上,进一步检验了被试所表现出来的单一参照系反应模式,是因为空间表征因素造成的还是因为记忆提取因素造成的。综合本研究八个实验的结果,可以得出以下主要结论: 一、多视点学习条件下,人在空间记忆中只建立一个内在参照系来表征场景,与此同时,其他所有可用来定义和描述场景空间关系的内在参照系则可能被抑制,因而在行为结果上就表现为单一参照系表征的反应模式。 二、多视点学习条件下所表现出的单一参照系反应模式,是由空间信息的编码和表征造成的,而不是由空间记忆过程中的提取和恢复因素造成的。 三、多视点学习条件下,通过直接观察学习和地图学习的方式进行,或者通过交替学习的方式进行,都不会影响被试单一表征的反应模式。 本研究的结果支持了单一内在参照系表征的观点,并首次提供证据证明,这种反应模式是由于空间表征而不是记忆提取造成的。本研究的结果也验证和拓展了Mou,McNamara及其同事所提出的空间记忆的内在参照系表征理论。
其他摘要The aim of the present study was to investigate whether people can establish two oblique spatial reference directions to represent objects’ locations in memory. Participants learned a layout of objects from two oblique viewpoints (0º and 225º) and made judgments of relative direction (“Imagine you are standing at X, facing Y, please point to Z”). Experiments 1 to 3 showed that performance in pointing were better at either one of the familiar imagined headings (0º and 225º) in most of the participants even when they were instructed to learn the layout along their actual heading at both learning directions, and when their actual headings at the test were the same as the imagined headings. Experiments 4 to 6 showed performance in pointing could be equivalent at the two familiar imagined headings for significant number of the participants when participants learned two different set of objects occupied at the same locations from the two learning viewpoints, and when participants learned the same layout of objects together with two different layouts from the two learning viewpoints. These results suggest that the orientation dependent performance in Experiments 1 to 3 cannot be attributed to the possibility that participants had formed two oblique spatial reference directions during learning but only used one of them during testing. Experiments 7 and 8 further showed that the performance of pointing at the two familiar viewpoints were significantly different when participants experienced one viewpoint by learning the actual layout and the other viewpoint by learning the map of the same layout, and when participants experienced two viewpoints alternatively over the ten times of learning sessions. All these results strongly suggest that people establish only one spatial reference system to represent locations of objects when they learn the same layout in the same background from two oblique viewpoints.
页数105
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4608
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
赵民涛. 多视点学习条件下场景内在参照系的建立[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2007.
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