运动与重定向时物-我、物-物空间表征的使用
其他题名Utilization of Self-to-object and Object-to-object Spatial Representations in Locomotion and Reorientation
肖承丽
学位类型博士
导师牟炜民
2008-05-30
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词物体-自我空间表征 物体-物体空间表征 空间更新 迷向 场景结构 学习位置 表征精确度
摘要本研究通过8个实验探讨了场景结构与学习位置对观察者建立与使用物体-自我与物体-物体空间关系的影响。研究一,被试分别在规则或不规则场景的边缘或者内部学习物体位置,然后戴上眼罩站在场景内部完成三种条件下的物体指向任务:面对学习方向(基线条件),转动240度后(更新后条件),转晕后(迷向后条件)。研究二重复了研究一的四个实验条件,但是在被试转动之前给予要求保持在研究一中没有表现出的另外一种空间关系的指导语。被试在每种条件下指向各物体误差在物体间的标准差被作为判断被试在各条件下使用表征精确度高低的标准。 结果发现:被试在学习场景中的物体位置之后,多数条件下同时形成了物体-自我与物体-物体空间表征;场景规则性会影响被试在运动时使用哪种表征,如果场景结构规则,在默认情况下被试会更新物体-自我空间表征,如果场景结构不规则,在默认情况下被试会更新物体-物体表征;这种默认的选择可以通过自上而下的认知调控改变,被试可以按照指导语要求在更新时从默认的物体-物体表征“切换”到物体-自我表征,也可以按照指导语要求在更新时从默认的物体-自我表征“切换”到物体-物体表征;表征的精确度将限制这种切换,即被试只能从默认的精确度较低的表征“切换”到精确度较高的表征,或者在两种精确度相当的表征之间切换,但是无法从默认的精确度较高的表征“切换”精确度较低的表征;学习位置会对这两种表征的精确性造成影响,在场景外学习能够同时形成精确度较高的物体-物体和物体-自我空间表征,而在场景内学习只能形成精确度较高的物体-自我空间表征,物体-物体空间表征精确度较低。
其他摘要Eight experiments tested how object array structure and learning location influenced the establishing and utilization of self-to-object and object-to-object spatial representations in locomotion and reorientation. In Experiment 1 to 4, participants learned either at the periphery of or amidst regular or irregular object array, and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in three conditions: before turning (baseline), after rotating 240 degrees (updating), and after disorientation (disorientation). In Experiment 5 to 8, participants received instruction to keep track of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial representations before rotation. In each condition, the configuration error, which means the standard deviation of the means per target object of the signed pointing errors, was calculated as the index of the fidelity of representation used in each condition. Results indicate that participants form both self-to-object and object-to-object spatial representations after learning an object-array. Object-array structure influences the selection of representation during updating. By default, object-to-object spatial representation is updated when people learned the regular object-array structure, and self-to-object spatial representation is updated when people learned the irregular object array. But people could also update the other representation when they are required to do so. The fidelity of representations will confine this kind of “switch”. People could only “switch” from a low fidelity representation to a high fidelity representation or between two representations of similar fidelity. They couldn’t “switch” from a high fidelity representation to a low fidelity representation. Leaning location might influence the fidelity of representations. When people learned at the periphery of object array, they could acquire both self-to-object and object-to-object spatial representations of high fidelity. But when people learned amidst the object array, they could only acquire self-to-object spatial representation of high fidelity, and the fidelity of object-to-object spatial representation was low.
页数111
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4610
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
肖承丽. 运动与重定向时物-我、物-物空间表征的使用[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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