注意在视觉刺激位置编码中的作用
其他题名The role of attention in spatial location code of visual Stimuli
罗春明
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2008-10-07
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词基于客体的注意 基于空间的注意 空间Stroop效应 Simon效应 空间编码
摘要注意在空间编码中的作用已得到广泛认同,但其机制尚存争议。一些研究者通过结合使用空间提示程序与空间Stroop类任务,研究空间注意对空间编码的影响,并分别提出注意转移、参照编码和事件整合三种不同的假设来解释空间提示对空间Stroop效应的调节作用。但是,在以往的这些研究中,有效提示试验中的提示和箭头目标不仅都出现在同一位置,而且它们实际上也出现在同一客体内,这使得该位置和客体均被提示,因而空间Stroop任务中基于空间注意的调节与基于客体注意的调节相混淆。本研究试图操控和分离空间Stroop任务中基于空间的注意的调节与基于客体的注意的调节作用,进一步研究注意在视觉刺激位置编码中的作用机制。 首先,本研究通过整合双矩形提示程序(Egly, Driver, & Rafal, 1994)的变式与Lupiáñez和Funes(2005)所使用的空间Stroop任务,设计完成了4个实验,分别考查了注意在视觉刺激位置编码中的作用。实验结果一致表明,空间Stroop效应受基于客体的注意的调节,而不受基于空间的注意的调节。该结果模式可用事件整合假设予以说明,而无法用注意转移或参照编码假设来解释。 其次,本研究针对注意对空间编码的调节发生在知觉辨别阶段还是反应选择阶段这个问题,设计完成了2个子实验。结果表明,基于客体的注意只调节空间Stroop效应,但不调节Simon效应;而基于空间的注意既不调节Stroop效应,也不调节Simon效应。参考以往研究者的观点,即与空间Stroop效应和Simon效应有关的干扰分别发生在知觉辨别阶段和反应选择阶段,我们有理由认为,注意对空间信息编码的调节是经由客体注意完成的,而且这种调节发生于知觉辨别阶段。 最后,本研究设计完成了3个实验,深入探讨了突现提示和消失提示所捕获的注意在空间Stroop任务中的作用。结果表明,消失提示和突现提示所捕获的注意都调节空间Stroop效应。这种调节与事件整合理论的解释相一致。 综上所述,本研究表明,注意对与位置编码相对应的空间Stroop效应的调节是经由客体注意产生的,而不是经由空间注意产生的;客体注意的这种调节作用发生在知觉辨别阶段,而不是在反应选择阶段;由突现和消失提示所捕获的注意都能调节与位置编码相对应的空间Stroop效应,且前者的调节作用较大。这些发现深化了我们对注意在空间编码中的作用及其机制的理解,具有重要的理论意义和潜在的应用价值。
其他摘要There is extensive agreement that attention may play a role in spatial stimmlus coding (Lu & Proctor, 1995). Some authors investigated the effects of spatial attention on the spatial coding by using spatial cueing procedure and spatial Stroop task. The finding was that the stroop effects were modulated by spatial cueing. Three hypotheses including attentional shift account, referential coding account, and event integration account were used to explain the modulation of spatial cueing over the spatial Stroop effects. In these previous studies, on validly cued trials, cue and target not only appeared at the same location, but also in the same object, which resulted in both location and object cued. Consequently, the modulation of spatial attentional cueing over spatial Stroop effects was confounded with the role of object-based attention. In the third chapter of this dissertation, using a modification of double rectangles cueing procedure developed by Egly, Driver and Rafal (1994) and spatial Stroop task employed by Lupiáñez and Funes (2005), separate effects of spatial attention and object-based attention on the location code of visual stimuli were investigated. Across four experiments, the combined results showed that spatial Stroop effects were modulate by object-based attention, but not by location-based attention. This pattern of results could be well explained by event integration account, but not by attentional shift account and referential coding account. In the fourth chapter, on the basis of the prior chapter, whether the modulation of attentional cueing on location code occurred at the stage of perceptual identification or response choice was investigated. The findings were that object-based attention modulated spatial Stroop effects and did not modulate the Simon effects, whereas spatial attention did not modulate Stroop and Simon effects. This pattern of results partially replicated the outcome of the previous chapter. The previous studies generally argued that the conflicts of spatial Stroop task and Simon task respectively occurred at at the stage of perceptual identification and response choice. Therefore, it is likely to conclude that the modulation of attention over spatial Stroop effect was mediated by object-based attention, and this modulation occurred at the stage perceptual identification. Considering that the previous studies mostly investigated the effects of attention captured by abrupt onset on the spatial Stroop effects, few studies investigated the effects of attention captured by offset cue on the spatial Stroop effects. The aim of the fifth chapter was to investigate the role of attention induced by offset and abrupt onset cue in the spatial Stroop task. These results showed that attention elicited by offset cue or abrupt onset cue modulated the spatial Stroop effects, which reconciled with event integration account.
页数95
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4614
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
罗春明. 注意在视觉刺激位置编码中的作用[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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