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空间工作记忆与注意广度
Alternative TitleSpatial Working Memory and Scope of Attention
张航
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor傅小兰
2008-05-29
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral心理研究所
Keyword工作记忆 空间工作记忆 注意 Corsi方块任务 多物体追踪
Abstract工作记忆与注意之间的联系一直为研究者们所关注。在嵌入加工模型中,Cowan (1999, 2001)将工作记忆的核心结构称为“注意焦点”,并假设工作记忆的注意焦点与知觉的注意焦点的容量限制是同一固定的数量。虽然有很多研究支持工作记忆与注意的认知机制有共同之处,但是,很少有研究涉及这个关于注意广度的假设。通过分析Corsi方块任务(简称CBT)与多物体追踪(简称MOT)之间的双任务干扰效应,本论文为Cowan的这个关于两种注意焦点的容量的假设提供了否定的证据。我们首先用研究一中说明了MOT对CBT的干扰可以可靠地反映空间工作记忆与知觉共用的注意资源的性质。随后,研究二发现,空间工作记忆与知觉共用的注意资源的容量不是一个固定的数量,而是会随着控制注意的难度的变化而变化。而研究三发现,空间工作记忆与知觉中所使用的注意资源在一定程度上相对独立,二者的共同部分同一时刻只能用于注意一到两个项目。这些发现为进一步研究不同认知系统的容量限制以及编制相应能力测试提供参考。
Other AbstractThe relationship between working memory (WM) and attention has attracted many researchers. In his embedded-processes model of WM, Cowan (1999, 2001) uses the term focus of attention to refer to the core component of WM, and proposes that the focus of attention of WM and that of perception have the same span, which is a fixed number. This hypothesis about the scope of attention has seldom been tested, although considerable studies have revealed that WM and attention have overlapping mechanisms. The present dissertation tests this hypothesis by examining the dual-task interference between Corsi Blocks Task (CBT) and Mutilple Object Tracking (MOT) and the findings demenstrate that Cowan’s hypothesis is not exactly true. The results of our first study show that the interference effect of MOT on CBT is a reliable indicator of whether and to which extent the attentional resoureces of WM and perception overlap. In the second study we find that the capacity of the common resources is not a fixed number but varies with the difficulty of control of attention. And the third study indicates that attentional resources used in WM and perception are partly independent, the overlapping part can attend to only one or two items or locations at a time. These findings can contribute to future studies on the capacity limitation of different cognitive functions, and to the development of relevant ability tests.
Pages84
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4616
Collection中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张航. 空间工作记忆与注意广度[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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