任职者工作分析评价结果影响因素的多水平探讨
其他题名Sources of Variance in Job Analysis Ratings Given by Job Incumbents: A Multilevel Investigation
李文东
学位类型博士
导师时勘
2008-05-31
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点心理研究所
关键词工作分析/设计 工作绩效和态度 领导-下属交换 目标相互依存 组织文化
摘要工作分析是组织人力资源管理的基础工作之一;探讨相同职位的任职者工作分析评价结果差异的影响因素,不仅对组织人力资源管理实践有重要意义,而且对组织内员工的激励也有指导作用。以往工作分析领域研究多在个体水平进行,并把相同职位任职者工作分析评价结果的差异归因于评价误差。基于角色理论和其它相关理论,本研究认为这些差异可能是有意义的,并对这些差异进行了多水平探讨。在文献回顾的基础上,通过对8个工作岗位1124名任职者收集数据的多水平分析,本研究相对系统的探讨了个体、人际和组织因素对相同职位的任职者工作分析评价结果的影响,得到如下结论: 第一、个体水平上,不同绩效水平和不同工作态度的任职者,即使处于同样职位,对工作活动和任职资格要求的看法是不同的。绩效水平高的任职者,认为自己在从事较高水平的技术性工作(电厂设计人员样本),并且更加清楚的认识到信息加工对自己工作的重要性(图书编辑样本)。在工作态度方面,当任职者(四个工作)对工作感到满意时,会认为组织技能和认知技能对本岗位的工作更重要,需要更高的水平,同时需要更高水平的技术性技能。此外,任职者对组织的情感承诺越高,认为认知技能的重要性和水平也越高;他们对工作越卷入,认为组织技能和认知技能越重要,需要的水平也越高。 第二、人际关系方面,处于同样职位的任职者,由于与领导交换关系不同,以及与同事目标关系不同,导致他们对自己工作活动和任职资格要求的看法不一样。与上级交换关系好的新闻记者,认为自己有更多的决策空间,参与更多的人际交往活动(如帮助别人)。而认为自己个人目标与他人目标是合作性关系的图书编辑,认为推理技能及相关人格要求对自己的工作更重要,需要更高水平的推理能力;他们还认为人际交往技能和相关人格要求对自己的工作更重要,需要的人际交往技能水平也更高。 第三、组织水平上,在不同的组织中,即使相同职位的工作对任职者的任职资格要求仍有显著差别。具体而言,成就取向和尽职尽责相关的人格要求在不同组织间存在显著差异,这些差异与相应的组织文化维度(成就导向的文化与诚信导向的文化)显著相关。进一步分析发现,成就导向的组织文化可以直接和间接的(如通过工作卷入)影响工作成就取向的人格要求。 以上研究结果充分说明,相同职位的任职者工作分析评价结果的差异可能是有意义的。未来工作分析研究和实践需要充分考虑到个体、人际和组织水平因素对任职者工作职责和任职资格要求的影响,提高工作分析质量。本论文的研究结果也对如何激励员工将组织要求转化为具体的工作要求有重要启示。
其他摘要As the foundation of other human resource practices, job analysis plays an essential role in HR management. Exploring sources of variance in job analysis ratings given by incumbents from the same job is of much significance to HRM practices. It can also shed lights on employee motivation in organizations. But previous studies in job analysis field have usually been conducted at individual level and take variance in job analysis ratings given by incumbents of the same job as error or bias. This dissertation takes the position that the variance may be meaningful based on role theory and other relevant theories. It first reviewed pervious studies on factors which may influence job analysis ratings provided by incumbents of the same job, and then investigated individual, interpersonal and organizational level variables which may exert impacts on these job analysis ratings, using multilevel data from 8 jobs of 1124 incumbents. The major findings are as follows: 1) Level of job performance and job attitudes affect incumbents’ job analysis ratings by incumbents of the same job at individual level. Specifically, incumbents with high level of job performance rated their job require higher levels of technical skills (power plant designers), and regarded information processing activities as more important to their job (book editors). Regarding the effects of job attitudes, incumbents of the four jobs with high level of job satisfaction gave higher importance and level ratings on organizational and cognitive skills, as well as higher level ratings on technical skills. Further, incumbents with higher affective commitment provided higher importance and level ratings of cognitive skills. Lastly, more involved job incumbents perceived organizational skills and cognitive skills as more important, and required at higher levels, for their job. 2) Leader-Member Exchange and goal structure also have effects on job analysis ratings by incumbents of the same job at interpersonal level. In good quality LMX relationship, news reporters rated decision-making activities and interpersonal activities as more important to their job. On the other side, when book editors structured their goals as cooperative with others’, they provided higher importance ratings on reasoning and interpersonal skills, and related personality requirements, as well as higher level ratings on reasoning abilities. 3) Worker requirements for the identical job are distinct from one organization to another. Specifically, there were between-organization differences in achievement orientation and conscientiousness related personality requirements. In addition, two dimensions of organizational culture, achievement-oriented culture and integrity-oriented culture in particular, were significantly associated with importance ratings of achievement orientation and conscientiousness related personality requirements respectively. Furthermore, achievement-oriented culture both directly and indirect (through job involvement) influenced achievement orientation related personality requirements. The results indicate that variation in job analysis ratings provided by incumbents of the same job may be meaningful. Future job analysis studies and practices should consider the impacts of these individual, interpersonal and organizational level factors on job analysis information. The results also have important implications for employee motivation concerning how organizational demands can be transformed into specific job and worker requirements.
页数120
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/4628
专题中国科学院心理研究所回溯数据库(1956-2010)
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李文东. 任职者工作分析评价结果影响因素的多水平探讨[D]. 心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2008.
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