As the foundation of other human resource practices, job analysis plays an essential role in HR management. Exploring sources of variance in job analysis ratings given by incumbents from the same job is of much significance to HRM practices. It can also shed lights on employee motivation in organizations. But previous studies in job analysis field have usually been conducted at individual level and take variance in job analysis ratings given by incumbents of the same job as error or bias. This dissertation takes the position that the variance may be meaningful based on role theory and other relevant theories. It first reviewed pervious studies on factors which may influence job analysis ratings provided by incumbents of the same job, and then investigated individual, interpersonal and organizational level variables which may exert impacts on these job analysis ratings, using multilevel data from 8 jobs of 1124 incumbents. The major findings are as follows:
1) Level of job performance and job attitudes affect incumbents’ job analysis ratings by incumbents of the same job at individual level. Specifically, incumbents with high level of job performance rated their job require higher levels of technical skills (power plant designers), and regarded information processing activities as more important to their job (book editors). Regarding the effects of job attitudes, incumbents of the four jobs with high level of job satisfaction gave higher importance and level ratings on organizational and cognitive skills, as well as higher level ratings on technical skills. Further, incumbents with higher affective commitment provided higher importance and level ratings of cognitive skills. Lastly, more involved job incumbents perceived organizational skills and cognitive skills as more important, and required at higher levels, for their job.
2) Leader-Member Exchange and goal structure also have effects on job analysis ratings by incumbents of the same job at interpersonal level. In good quality LMX relationship, news reporters rated decision-making activities and interpersonal activities as more important to their job. On the other side, when book editors structured their goals as cooperative with others’, they provided higher importance ratings on reasoning and interpersonal skills, and related personality requirements, as well as higher level ratings on reasoning abilities.
3) Worker requirements for the identical job are distinct from one organization to another. Specifically, there were between-organization differences in achievement orientation and conscientiousness related personality requirements. In addition, two dimensions of organizational culture, achievement-oriented culture and integrity-oriented culture in particular, were significantly associated with importance ratings of achievement orientation and conscientiousness related personality requirements respectively. Furthermore, achievement-oriented culture both directly and indirect (through job involvement) influenced achievement orientation related personality requirements.
The results indicate that variation in job analysis ratings provided by incumbents of the same job may be meaningful. Future job analysis studies and practices should consider the impacts of these individual, interpersonal and organizational level factors on job analysis information. The results also have important implications for employee motivation concerning how organizational demands can be transformed into specific job and worker requirements.